Chapter_2_Well_Said

Chapter_2_Well_Said - jntroduction to Dictionary Symbols...

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Unformatted text preview: jntroduction to Dictionary Symbols You can use your dictionary for more than just word definitions. Your dictionary is also a useful pronunciation resource, especially when you can anticipate the vocabulary you will need for a discussion or presentation. Dictionaries use special symbols for pronunciation, but the symbols can be confusing because they vary from dictionary to dictionary. Standard English dictionariesusually use symbols like those in the cartoon above. Dictionaries for English students, however, usually use a version of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). This chapter will help you understand the symbols in your dictionary, whether you'use a standard English dictionary or a dictionary for students learning English, such as the Collins COB MILD Dictionary of American English or The Newbury House Dictionary of American English (NED). fl Syllables: Each vowel sound in a word creates a beat or syllable. For example, present has two vowel sounds and two beats. Some dictionaries separate syllables with dots. pre «- sent preosi o dent Syllables for writing are often indicated in the first entry word; syllables for speaking are often indicated in parentheses or between slanted lines. pre o sent /prs zsnt/ pre osi- dent /pre 29 dsnt/ The number of written syllables and the number of spoken syllables are occasionally different: 4 written syllables 3 spoken syllables l l veg a so taoble /ved3 to ball Exercise 1 Guess how many spoken syllables are in each word below. Then check your dictionary. Write each word in the correct column. ' arrive please immediate cereal text _ authority page video manager dictionary business chocolate 1 syllable 2 syllables 3 sytiables 4 syllables own jun eior pensiotive com o be otietion fl Say the words in each column With your teacher or the speaker on audio. cmfizacict How does your dictionary Show number of syllables? a Stress: All dictionaries show primary stress, the strongest syllable in a word. Some underline the vowel in the stressed syllable. Others use a boldface mark before / '/ or after ( ) the syllable with primary stress. preosio dent /‘pre 29 dont/ From a learner dictionary preosi-dent (prez’i—dant) From a standard English dictionary Exercise 2 0 CD Eg'frackz Guess Where the primary stress is in each word. Then mark the primary stress, according to your dictionary. The first one has been done for you. 1. ca 'nal 2. tech no 10 gy 3. tech no lo gi 4. ap pre Ci ate 5.. by po the sis 8. pro duee (noun) cat 7. pro duce (verb) 8. mi no ri ty How does your dictionary mark primary stress? Say the words with your teacher or the speaker on audio. E Vowels with Name Sounds: Vowels with name sounds, sometimes called long vowels, are pronounced like their letter names. To represent name sounds, most dictionaries for English learners use IPA symbols. Standard dictionaries use this symbol (m) over the vowets. paid / peld/ paid (pad) From a learner dictionary From a standard English dictionary Exercise 3 Write the vowel sy mbol your dictionary uses for vowels in italics. Then find the key word for each symbol in the Pronunciation Guide in your dictionary. The first one has been done for you using a learner dictionary. LETTER NAME WORDS SYMBOL KEY WORQ 1 _ A face and paint 81 ' a same 2‘ E seat and meet mm”; 3_ I hike and might % WW 4. O role and goal WW 5_ U use and due m CD 1;?racx 3 fl Repeat the words after your teacher or the speaker on audio. vowets with Basa Sounds: Vowels with base sounds are sometimes called newsyllable words, base sounds are usually single vowel ietters short vowels. In 0 eceded by a consonant and always followed by a consonant 1 They are often pr (e.g., phm, met, if, cost, but). To represent base Sounds! mOS’C dictionaries for English learners use IPA SYmbois 5 Standard dictionaries use this symbol (V) 01‘ no mark over the vowei. i . plan /p13en/ From a learner dictionary 1' plan (131511) From a standard English dictionary 1: Exercise 4 Write the symbols your dictionasy uses for the vowels in italics. Then find the key word for each symbol 111 your dlctionary’s Pronunciation Guide. The first item has been done for you using a learner dictionary. SYMBOL KEY WORD 0&4 Say the words after your teacher or the speaker on audio. E The Schwa Vowel Sound: VOWels in stresseci syllables are clear, but vowels in unstressed syllables tend to be unclear. Unstressed syllables often contain the neutral sound of schwa / 9/, as in about or us. For that reason, schwa is the most common vowel sound in North American English. Most dictionaries use the symboi /a/ for the schwa. aovailoaoble /a'ver is 3091/ From a learner dictionary a-vailoaable (a—va’la ~bsl) From a standard English dictionary Exercise 5 fl Gmflrack 5 With a partner, guess where the schwa / 9/ occurs in these words. Then look the words up in a dictionary. Underline the schwa sounds. 1. mi nor 3. com mon 5.. ac a dem ic 6.. pro tec tion 2. mi nor i ty 4. com pete Repeat the words after your teacher or the Speaker onaudio. m Consonant Sounds: English consonants are not always pronounced the Way they are spelled. Exercise 6 fl DB 1; Track 6 Write the symbol your dictionary uses for the italicized letters in each set of words. Then find the key word for each symboi in your dictionary’s Pronunciation Guide. The first one was done using a learner dictionary. SYMBOL KEY WORD 1 . zero lose /z / zoo close (verb) razor 2. Show initiate pressure speciai 3. check furniture nature situation 4,. division usually Asia beige 5. joke ' graduate agent schedule 6. maximum extreme explain accept Repeat the words after your teacher or the speaker on audio. Exercise 7 Part A: Think about an upcommg ClaSS, meeting; Presentation, or discussion. write five words that you want to say Clearly Write the dictionary Pronunciations. Example: Yu Huang studies English. He could not think of an upcoming situation, but these words gave him trouble when he was £00kng at used cars: mechanic, guarantee, and transmissim- YOUR WORDS DICTIONARY PRONUNCiATIONS Example mechanic 1mg 'kae Ink; 1. 2. W W W 3. 4. W 5. part 5: write a typical phrase or sentence You might use with each word from Exercise 7A. Dictate each sentence to Your partner. Say it three timES naturaHY Look up from your book when you are speaking, Example (mechaniC) can I takfi it to 3, mechamc? C3 2" O 3 E < .—.. . 1 _‘ c: :3 m m 2 m 1:" O :3 Exercise 8 Write key technical or professional terms you use regularly at school or work. Circle the words with pronunciations you are not sure of. Look up the circled words and write the pronunciations. DICTSONARY KEY TERMS PRONUNCIATiONS Example: WM 1233 'sth/ 6.. 7. 8. 9.. 10. Speak in slow motion and say each word once, than twice in a row, and then three fimes in a row. Contribute one or two of the most difficult words from your 1191: 311 and create a class list of difficult words» ‘ ation symbols in Well Said are similai' to the IPA many dictionaries for learners of English. They are the same 6123:1513: used 111 used in the vabury House Dictionary except for'four VOWE} sound: msymbols - ose sounds are shaded in the chart beiow. As you look through the IPA symbols, notice that man 3 mb ' the English alphabet; some do not. The symbols are 133m: d b:£::01<i1kelett{?rs of (/ ) next Jae-familiar key Words. Complete the chart by Writing the Syjbalf’ced hues . 0 8 your The prtmunci dictionary uses for each sound. 0 Learn to say the key words. Listen and repeat after your teacher or th k e spea er ClHH‘raekT on audio. Newbury Dictionary Your Dictionary Your Dictionary 1.. he 2. hit 3. may 4. get 5.. mad 6. bird 7. cup- “about 8. hot, father 9.. too 10. good 11. know 12. law 13.. fine 14. now 15. boy ‘ ‘ used in stressed Words *The vowel sounds in 0gp and about are similar sounds. The vowel sound/symbof In CUP '3 1 ¥ F r . les. E and syEIabEes while the vewei soundlsymbo] in gboutis used In unstressed words and syilab ! i Exercise 9 Place the symbol from Well Said next to the underiine Compare your answers with your partner’s answers. d sourad in each word. Consonants Vowels 1. ghips m __ 1.. 13953 W 2. goupon WW” 2. chggsecake W 3 3.. .17ng W 3. afr_a_id M i 4. tough W 4. mgch M 5.. brofiher W 5.. f_o_0j: W sz-‘Wfii'fi'flfi " Exercise 10 The cartoon at the beghming of the chapter shows pronunciation symbols for Zhevalski, the last name of the football player. Write your first and last names below. Using phonetic symbols from Well Said, write the pronunciation of your name betWeen the slanted lines. Ask your partner to use the symbols to pronounce your name. First Name: / / Last Name: / What sounds in your name do not exist in English? ...
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Chapter_2_Well_Said - jntroduction to Dictionary Symbols...

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