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1 NOTES ON READINGS Mod 3,4,5 -CICS 101 The Science of Climate Change-October 13 IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change For nearly 1 million years before the Industrial Revolution, CO 2 concentration in the air was between 170-280 ppm. Yet, now levels are far above that range at 387 ppm. Article 2 of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: attempt to keep emissions in controllable levels to adapt naturally to climate change, ensure food production is not threatened, and enable economic development. is this truly achievable? Warming contributes to: droughts, floods, heat waves, intense rainfall 2 degrees Celcius is what the world needs to limit human-caused temperature increase Kyoto Protocol- international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Major feature = sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the EC for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (which are present in atmosphere) Natural Greenhouse effect- warming level created by the natural level of these gases. This effect warms the world more, keeps most of the world’s water in the liquid phase, and allows life to exist from the equator to near the poles. Humans speed up the greenhouse effect. Carbon Cycle- carbon is exchanged by atmosphere (movement of carbon to oceans, earth, soil, etc. .) Concentrations of other heat-trapping gases have increased significantly as a result of fossil-fuel combustion Most of the temperature increase is caused by human activity: stressors such as habitat degradation, invasive species, and air and water pollution Ecological services such as productivity of agriculture will be further affected as ecosystems change and climate shifts 5 categories of reasons for concern: 1. Threatened ecosystems 2. Extreme events 3. Breadth of impacts 4. Total economic impact 5. Large-scale discontinuities Short Term Effects of climate due to warming (exceeding 2 degrees Celsius): higher average air temperatures, melting of snow and ice in Arctic and Greenland, increase in sea level, more floods and droughts, interiors of content dry out although there is more rain (because of speeding up of water cycle + warmer climates) these rapid changes affect predator-prey relationship Future/Long-Term Effects due to warming: collapse of ecosystems, changing of timing of growing seasons, coastal erosion, permafrost thaw, ocean acidification, water availability will be reduced (will lead to water shortages in Africa and Asia), will lead to increased chance extinction of various plant and animal species Oceans will become more acidic (lower pH) as Carbon increases in atmosphere The effect is many organisms such as corals and plankton make their shells out of calcium carbonate will not be able to develop (i.e plankton may not remain abundant and they are the base of the food chain) Coral reefs- most vulnerable to changing climate/atmosphere, they are global centers for biodiversity
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course CICS 111 taught by Professor Forgot during the Fall '11 term at University of Michigan.

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