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Unformatted text preview: Int J Softw Tools Technol Transfer (2004) / Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1007/s10009-004-0167-4 AnoverviewofJMLtoolsandapplications Lilian Burdy 1 , Yoonsik Cheon 2 , DavidR. Cok 3 , Michael D. Ernst 4 , Joseph R. Kiniry 5 , Gary T. Leavens 6, , K. Rustan M. Leino 7 , Erik Poll 5 1 INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, France 2 Dept. of Computer Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA 3 Eastman Kodak Company, R&D Laboratories, Rochester, NY, USA 4 Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Lab, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA 5 Dept. of Computer Science, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) 6 Dept. of Computer Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA 7 Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Published online: 14 December 2004 Springer-Verlag 2004 Abstract. The Java Modeling Language (JML) can be used to specify the detailed design of Java classes and in- terfaces by adding annotations to Java source files. The aim of JML is to provide a specification language that is easy to use for Java programmers and that is supported by a wide range of tools for specification typechecking, runtime debugging, static analysis, and verification. This paper gives an overview of the main ideas be- hind JML, details about JMLs wide range of tools, and a glimpse into existing applications of JML. Keywords: Java Formal specification Assertion checking Programverification Design by Contract 1 Introduction JML [57,58], the Java Modeling Language, is useful for specifying detailed designs of Java classes and interfaces. JML is a behavioral interface specification language for Java; that is, it specifies both the behavior and the syn- tactic interface of Java code. The syntactic interface of a Javaclass or interface consists of its method signatures, the names and types of its fields, etc. This is what is com- monly meant by an application programming interface (API). The behaviorof such an API canbe precisely doc- umentedinJMLannotations;thesedescribetheintended way that programmers should use the API. In terms of behavior, JML can detail, for example, the preconditions andpostconditionsformethodsaswellasclassinvariants, in the Design by Contract style . An important goal for the design of JML is that it should be easily understandable by Java programmers. This is achieved by staying as close as possible to Java Supported in part by US NSF grants CCR-0097907 and CCR- 0113181 syntax and semantics. Another important design goal is that JML not impose any particular design methodology on users; instead, JML should be able to document Java programs designed in any manner. The work on JML was started by Gary Leavens and his colleagues and students at Iowa State University. It has since grown into a cooperative, open effort. Several groups worldwide are now building tools that support the JML notation and are involved with the ongoing de- sign of JML. For an up-to-date list, see the JML Web site,...
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