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PSYC 210 - Introduction to Statistics

PSYC 210 - Introduction to Statistics - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Statistics 1. Overview of Course and Requirements 2. Research Methods Overview a. Correlational/Observational method: Make observations of two variables as they exist naturally to observe if there is a relationship. Cannot establish cause-and-effect in the relationship b. Experimental Method: One variable is manipulated while changes are observed in another variable. 3. Terminology a. Variable: A characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals. i. Independent variable: The variable that is manipulated by the researcher. The “cause” ii. Dependent variable: The variable that is observed for changes in order to assess the effect of the treatment. The “effect” b. Data: Measurements collected in research; often they are scores, but may be ranks, categories, types, etc. c. Statistics: A set of methods and rules for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information. i. Descriptive: Statistical procedures used to summarize, organize and simplify data. (i.e., averages, tables, graphs) Examples include: Scores from first exam for 88 students, Public attitudes towards death penalty, Rates of adolescent drug and alcohol use ii. Inferential: Consists of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected.
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