PPD225MidtermReview(MainConcepts)

PPD225MidtermReview(MainConcepts) - Policy Actors Official...

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Policy Actors: Official actors that can be elected appointed, bureaucratic, legislative and judicial; essentially all the people that have a say in making policies. Citizens can also be policy actors. Congress : Acts on legislative proposals appropriates money for all agencies, and oversees the operations of executive agencies. Executive : Executive agencies implement public policies in part by establishing rules and regulations under the discretion granted to them by Congress. Judiciary : Judiciary affects public policy through established precedent. The courts interpret constitutional and legislative provisions and settle disputes that arise as a result of the executive agency. Interest Groups : There are tens of thousands of interest groups in the United States. Some focus on all levels of government, while others concentrate on one level only. Many participate in the electoral process through contributions, endorsements, and issue advocacy. General Public : Approximately 210 million people in the U.S. can participate in the policy process in variety of ways, including voting, joining interest groups, and contacting government officials directly. The public may have more opportunities to participate directly in policymaking at the state and local levels through such channels as referendums (An issue that is semi-passed already needs a vote to pass completely and initiatives (Compile a certain amount of signatures for a policy that’s already enacted and you can force another vote for it Re: Propositions. Lobbyist : People connected to interest groups. Lobbying is probably the most visible group activity. Lobbyists read and write policy papers. Ballot Measures Federalists & Anti-Federalists Steps in the policy analysis process: Rational Choice Theory : Public Choice is the one that borrows essentially the economics model. To apply to public policy decision making. More of a theory of decision making than a policy process. Decisions are based on maximizing self interest. About policy making is that it tends to or can be modeled as perpetuating ‘self interest. Decisions will get made around a cost/benefit calculation. Policy analysts are primarily doing cost/benefit analysis for someone’s interest.
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