1811 - Antibiotic Resistance and Medicinal Drug Policy Dr...

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Antibiotic Resistance and Medicinal Drug Policy Dr. Ken Harvey School of Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia 1
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2 Lecture outline Why the concern about antibiotic resistance? The history, microbiological and social determinants of antibiotic resistance Containing antibiotic resistance: microbiological surveillance, antibiotic utilization studies and other interventions One country’s response: the quality use of medicines pillar of Australian drug policy The current challenge – using information technology to further improve antibiotic use
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Press Release WHO/41 12 June 2000 DRUG RESISTANCE THREATENS TO REVERSE MEDICAL PROGRESS Curable diseases – from sore throats and ear infections to TB and malaria -- are in danger of becoming incurable A new report warns that increasing drug resistance could rob the world of its opportunity to cure illnesses and stop epidemics. 3
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4 The start of antibiotic resistance: Penicillin Fleming 1928 Florey & Chain 1940
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5 History of resistance 1941 Penicillin 1960 Methicillin 1943 Streptomycin 1962 Lincomycin 1945 Cephalosporins 1962 Quinolones 1950 Tetracyclines 1970 Penems 1952 Eryrthromycin 1980 Monobactams 1956 Vancomycin 2010 The end of the antibiotic era?
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6 Bacterial evolution vs mankind’s ingenuity Adult humans contains 10 14 cells, only 10% are human – the rest are bacteria Antibiotic use promotes Darwinian selection of resistant bacterial species Bacteria have efficient mechanisms of genetic transfer – this spreads resistance Bacteria double every 20 minutes, humans every 30 years Development of new antibiotics has slowed – resistant microorganisms are increasing
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7 Surveillance of resistance: Australia Data are collected from 29 laboratories around Australia, including public hospital and private laboratories, in both metropolitan and country areas.
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