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6361 - Designing a Virtual Operating Room for Operative...

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Unformatted text preview: Designing a Virtual Operating Room for Operative Interventions under Some Pathologies of Middle Ear. A Case of the Database Authors: S.K. Shoukourian, A.K.Shukurian, A.A.Avagyan, A.M. Vasilyan ENT Department 2 Koryun str., 375025 Yerevan State Medical University Yerevan, Armenia Tel: (3741) 56 05 94 Fax: (3741) 52 96 05 Email: [email protected] A thought simulation technology both for offline and online modes of simulation; Simulation execution of different models of a hearing system; Easy changes of a model; A simplicity for changing simulation algorithms ; A smooth addition of a new models, simulation algorithms and modes; No dependence of a hearing system specific configurations; Easy usage of different interfaces to existing biomedical networks and telecommunication resources EXPECTED ACHIEVEMENTS Creation of a models and applications for predication of operative interventions and hearing function changes (a virtual operating room) Creation of a cheap and justified technology for simulation algorithms and operative interventions strategies in off line and online modes and for different abstraction levels; Creation of the theoretical methods and algorithms for the design justification of models (e.g., operative intervention); Creation of an objectoriented technology base (algorithms, program utilities and interfaces) within the existing computerintegrated environments and telecommunication resources; investigation of the advantages of the technology for concrete classes of middle ear pathologies; evaluation of the correlation degree and nature between conductive and neurasensoral violations of hearing; OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION A VIRTUAL OPERATING ROOM A system for the actuality evaluation for an OI model A model generation system for an OI process A control system for an OI process An operative field ACTUALITY EVALUATION SUBSYSTEM Information flow A goal structure A goal strA system of results evaluationucture Rules of evaluation A MODEL GENERATION SUBSYSTEM An archive of models An agent of a model generation A history archive of models development A goal structure TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION A CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AN OI PROCESS A process manager A surgeon A scheduler A dispatcher An agent for error correction An agent for process optimization An assistant An agent for process monitoring An agent for process diagnosis AN OPERATIVE FIELD Components of middle ear A state of an operative field Adegree of a disease reasons A patient state Groups of a disease reasons A set of instruments A set of devices AN INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN VIRTUAL AND REAL OPERATING ROOMS A virtual operating room An interface for a virtual operating room Database A diagnostic equipment A real operating room TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION A SIMPLIFIED VERSION OF INFORMATION EXCHANGE Object 1 Object 2 Object 3 Object 4 A list of operation triggers Broker of objects A list of assumptions A clock AN INTERFERENCE WITH GLOBAL BIOMEDICAL NETWORKS automatic transmission of different medical images and data (e.g., audiograms) and retransmission of analysis results; using of possibilities of 3D visualization within a virtual operating room; using of possibilities of HPC cites for experiments with complicated models; TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION A MODEL OF MIDDLE EAR IN A FORM OF INTERACTING OBJECTS Outer ear Tympanic membrane Muscles of tympanic membrane Malleus Incus Stapes Stapes muscle Horizontal semicircular canal Inner ear Tympanicc cavity Eustachea ntube Mucous membrane Mastoid processus Tympanic membrane 1. normal 2. attic perforation 3. edge perforation 4. central perforation Malleus and incus 1. normal 2. affection Stapes 1. normal 2. affection of foot plate 3. no affection of foot plate Mucous membrane 1. normal 2. hyperplasie 3. polyp Muscles of tympanic membrane and stapes 1. normal 2. affection Eustachean tube and mastoid processus 1. normal 2. affection Horizontal semicircular canal 1. normal 2. affection A TECHNOLOGY BASE ALGORITHMS AND MODELS Algorithms of predication Models of hearing organ and operative interventions HARDWARE Global telecommunication networks Special hardware SOFTWARE Userfriendly programming abstractions Special software EXAMPLES OF PROBLEMS TO BE EXAMINED 3D VISUALIZATION AND PROCESSING DURING INVESTIGATION OF A TEMPORAL BONE DETERMINATION AND LOCALIZATION OF OTOSCLEROSIS HEARTHS SIMULATION AND DETERMINATION OF ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT TRANSPLANTATION MATERIALS INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT POSSIBLE COMPLICATION OWING TO PECULIARITIES OF A PATIENT STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION FIELD Anesthesia Ear channel Ossicular chain Tympanic membrane Mucosa surgery Operative Therapy Intervention Otosurgeon Diagnosis Patient Anamnesis Pharmaceutical Therapy Clinical Examinations Roentgen Anatomical evaluation Biochemical Audiometry results Vestibular status Anesthesia ("Multiple to Single") ("Multiple to Multiple") ("Single to Multiple") Many to One Many to Many One to many A METHOD OF DESIGN STEPS OF A DESIGN PROCESS Functional Specification System Design Component Implementation SYSTEM DESIGN TASKS Allocation Variables Behavior Channels Partitioning Refinement Memories Processors Connections Variables to memories Behaviors to processors Channels Address assignment Interfacing Protocols Allocation defines system components for the given functional specification; Partitioning assigns functional object to allocated components; Refinement upgrades the original specification to reflect the impact of a given allocation and partition. INITIAL REQUIREMENTS TO THE DATABASE SYSTEM 1. An opportunity of distributed data processing; 2. Tables, which are describing parameters of a patient examination or technique of an operative intervention, contain too many descriptive attributes; 3. Information can be obtained in a graphical form (for example, roentgenograms); 4. Direct receipt of information from a diagnostic medical equipment is possible; 5. An opportunity of real time processing; 6. Usage of data both from local and global computerintegrated environments; 7. A differentiation of access, based on a centralized password authorization of a user as well as on a concept of user groups with the group rights (medical, laboratory, administrative personnel, patients) and a concept of groups for information field resources (personal data, laboratory results, diagnoses, operative interventions). 8. Data integrity limitations implied by the relations "single to multiple", "multiple to multiple" and "inherence" between objects. 9. Declarative data integrity limitations, imposed by descriptive attributes. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF A VIRTUAL OPERATING ROOM FOR PREDICTION OF OPERATIVE INTERVANTIONS UNDER SOME PATHOLOGIES OF MIDDLE EAR A retrospective review of satiating meanings for the word "virtual" in the area of computer sciences clearly demonstrates its development from a virtual storage, then a virtual machine to a virtual reality, i.e. an adequate 3D framework and an environment for a user generated by a computer. It allows without any effort to include and to merge a user within the mentioned environment. The virtual reality hides reading, writing and arithmetic and replaces it by direct, nonsymbolic environmental experience. The problems of a virtual reality turned to be specially important for novel complicated and higherprecision technologies. At the same time these technologies very rapidly become obsolete and the main problem here is a great contradiction between the time of determining optimal modes and possibilities of such a technology and the time of a new technology creation. This is the reason why investigations in the area of virtual highprecision technologies are considered as the most global and important problems within many national and international perspective scientific programs. All the existing achievements in modern information technologies and computerintegrated environments including global networks, communication resources, multimedia, etc. are serving to achieve solutions for these problems. On the other hand, an intensive development of a surgical medical instrument set and tools (microscopes, lasers, computer monitoring, etc.), a tendency of decreasing essentially a time interval between a new and a typical operative intervention and a tendency of increasing essentially a complexity of operative interventions and a number of surgical patients allow to ascertain as the determining for the present and the nearest future a creation of high precision, complicated, computerintegrated and, at the same time, rapidly becoming obsolete technologies of operative interventions. The described situation is very typical for otosurgery which could be characterized, on one hand, by a complexity of a miniature hearing organ, a usage of a very highprecision instrument set, essential contradictions among scientific references on operative interventions and, on the other hand, a relatively compact and simple operative environment. All the mentioned characteristics make otosurgery evidently suitable for experiments on its immersion into a computerintegrated environment. The planned system will make simulation and prediction of operative interventions transparent and empower the participant with natural interaction. The technical challenge is to create mediation languages and tools which enforce rigorous mathematical computation while supporting intuitive behavior. The system will be based on new possibilities of computerintegrated environments and will be presented in a form of a virtual operating room. ...
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