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19741 - IRON DEFICIENCY IDA Abdelaziz Elamin MD PhD FRCPCH...

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IRON DEFICIENCY & IDA IRON DEFICIENCY & IDA Abdelaziz Elamin MD, PhD, FRCPCH Professor of Child Health College of Medicine Sultan Qaboos University Muscat, Oman [email protected]
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HIDDEN HUNGER HIDDEN HUNGER The term was coined by WHO in 1986 & refers to the problems associated with the deficiency of 3 essential micronutrients: Iron Iodine  Vitamin A
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the lecture you will be able to: Discuss iron absorption, transport & stores Know the burden of IDA in the world Identify the causes & consequences of IDA Know how to diagnose IDA Recognize the strategies for control & prevention of IDA
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IRON IN NATURE IRON IN NATURE Iron is among the abundant minerals on earth. Of the 87 elements in the earth’s crust, Iron constitutes 5.6% and ranks fourth behind Oxygen (46.4%), Silicon (28.4%) and Aluminum (8.3%). In soil, Iron is 100 times more than Ca, Na & Mg and1000 times more than Zinc and 100,000 times more than Iodine.
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IRON DEFICIENCY IRON DEFICIENCY Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world affecting 1.3 billion people i.e. 24% of the world population. In comparison only 275 million are iodine deficient and 45 million children below age 5 years are Vitamin A deficient.
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IRON DEFICIENCY /2 IRON DEFICIENCY /2 Iron deficiency can range from sub-clinical state to severe iron deficiency anemia. Different stages are identified by clinical findings & lab tests. Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin below the 5 th percentile of healthy population. Most studies showed this cutoff point to be around 11 g/dl (-2SD below the mean).
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HB IN IDA HB IN IDA
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AT RISK GROUPS AT RISK GROUPS Infants Under 5 children Children of school age Women of child bearing age
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PREVALENCE OF ID PREVALENCE OF ID Region 0-4yr 5-12yr Women South Asia 56% 50% 58% Africa 56% 49% 44% Latin Am 26% 26% 17% Gulf Arabs 40% 36% 38% Developed 12% 7% 11% World 43% 37% 35%
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ETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY Inadequate intake of iron & of food, which enhances iron absorption. High intake of inhibitors of iron absorption Hookworm infestation. Blood loss (heavy menses & use of aspirin & NSAID). High fertility rate in womem. Low iron stores in newborns.
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DIETARY IRON DIETARY IRON There are 2 types of iron in the diet; haem iron and non-haem iron Haem iron is present in Hb containing animal food like meat, liver & spleen Non-haem iron is obtained from cereals, vegetables & beans Milk is a poor source of iron, hence breast-fed babies need iron supplements
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