intrB12 - civilization

intrB12 - civilization - state- Most civilizations use a...

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Anthropology 100 Lecture Outline The Rise of Civilization  1. The rise of civilization - Civilization refers to a specific form of social organization which became possible after the Neolithic Revolution. Civilizations can be defined as societies possessing most or all of 7 key characteristics - a food and labor surplus , usually generated through intensive agriculture, and controlled by an elite - a high degree of social stratification - the existence of formal government - a high degree of specialization of labor - the building of monumental public works - the existence of densely populated settlements , including the city - the development of a system of recordkeeping, usually involving writing - In addition, civilizations tend to have several additional features - the establishment of long-distance trade networks - the development of exact predictive sciences - sophisticated representational art 2. The rise of the
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Unformatted text preview: state- Most civilizations use a form of political organization known as the state- Ancient states tended to have four key characteristics - strongly differentiated social classes- the use of territorial membership , in which citizenship was based on residence rather than kinship- the concentration of power in an elite- a developed bureaucracy for administering the state 3. Why did civilizations develop?- functionalist explanations see the state as a response to the needs of growing human societies; Wittfogel's " hydraulic hypothesis ," for example, argues that states emerged to safeguard irrigation systems- conflict-based approaches focus on the extent to which civilizations emerged out of conflicts; Carniero's " cicumscription hypothesis ," for example, suggests that states originated as groups developed military mechanisms to break out of ecologically restricted territories Anthropology 100 Lecture Outline...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course ANTH 100 taught by Professor Idunno during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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intrB12 - civilization - state- Most civilizations use a...

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