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Unformatted text preview: 2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #1 2.016 Hydrodynamics Prof. A.H. Techet Why study Marine Hydrodynamics? The Earths oceans are one of our least explored resources. About 70-75% of the Earths surface is covered by water. The total area of water covering the earths surface is 361,419,000 km 2 , of which the oceans make up 335,258,000 km 2 (97%). There is the potential for many exciting discoveries in the deep: such as sources of food, medicines, energy, and water. Advanced engineering knowledge is needed to propel current ocean exploration capabilities and to assure that our ocean resources will persist for generations to come. Understanding marine hydrodynamics can help us to design better ocean vessels and to understand physical ocean processes. Marine Hydrodynamics encompasses many topics, including how surface ships, underwater vehicles and surface platforms interact with their environment. Waves and currents significantly affect these structures and a solid understanding of the fluid dynamics and forces that arise from fluid motions are crucial to designing and building complex ocean systems. Such systems include: Design of offshore platforms, such as tension leg platforms and marine risers Offshore instrumentation buoys for oceanographic measurement Design of surface ships and propellers Design of underwater vehicles Studying marine hydrodynamics provides a greater understanding of a wide range of phenomena of considerable complexity involving fluids. Understanding these phenomenon allow us to make predictions for practical ocean engineering applications. A fluid is a continuous medium made up of small particles. In general, fluid mechanics allows us to study groups of these particles without having to know what each individual particle is doing. The study of fluids at rest is called hydrostatics, and in this case, hydrostatic pressure is the predominate forcing. Of course, moving fluids are more interesting. When the fluid starts moving or a body in a fluid moves relative to the fluid, things start getting interesting and often quite complicated. version 4.0 updated 8/30/2005 aht -1- 2005 A. Techet 2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #1 Hydrodynamics v. Aerodynamics Water is almost 1000 times denser than air! Hydrostatic pressure is important Added Mass is an important factor in dynamic systems in the ocean. Basic Fluid Properties What defines a fluid? Fluid vs. Solid: Solids at rest will deform only so far under forces. Fluids cannot rest they must be in motion to sustain shear stress. - Conservation of Mass ) Similarities The continuum hypothesis is used for both fluids and solids. The fundamental laws of mechanics apply to both fluids and solids....
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.016 taught by Professor Alexandratechet during the Fall '05 term at MIT.
- Fall '05