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2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #7 2.016 Hydrodynamics Prof. A.H. Techet Fall 2005 Free Surface Water Waves I. Problem setup 1. Free surface water wave problem. In order to determine an exact equation for the problem of free surface gravity waves we will assume potential theory (ideal flow) and ignore the effects of viscosity. Waves in the ocean are not typically uni-directional, but often approach structures from many directions. This complicates the problem of free surface wave analysis, but can be overcome through a series of assumptions. To setup the exact solution to the free surface gravity wave problem we first specify our unknowns: G Velocity Field: V ( x , y , z , t ) = ∇ φ ( x , y , z , t ) ( x y t ) Free surface elevation: η , , Pressure field: p ( x y z t ) , , , version 3.0 updated 8/30/2005 -1- © 2005 A. Techet

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2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #7 Next we need to set up the equations and conditions that govern the problem: Continuity (Conservation of Mass): 2 φ = 0 for z < η (Laplace’s Equation) (7.1) Bernoulli’s Equation (given some φ ): p p a φ 1 + φ 2 + ρ + gz = 0 for z < η (7.2) t 2 No disturbance far away: φ φ , 0 and p = p ρ gz (7.3) t a Finally we need to dictate the boundary conditions at the free surface, seafloor and on any body in the water: (1) Pressure is constant across the free surface interface: p = p on z = η . atm ⎧∂ φ ( ) = p atm . (7.4) p = − ρ t 1 2 V 2 gz + c t ( Choosing a suitable integration constant, c t ) = p , the boundary condition on atm z = η becomes ρ { φ 1 V 2 + + g η } = 0 . (7.5) t 2 (2) Once a particle is on the free surface, it remains there always. Similarly, the normal velocity of a particle on the surface follows the normal velocity of the surface itself. z = η ( x p , t ) p η η z + δ z = η ( x p + δ x , t + δ t ) = η ( x p , t ) + δ x + δ t (7.6) p p p p x t On the surface, where z p = η , we can reduce the above equation to ∂η ∂η δ z = u δ t + δ t (7.7) p x t and substitute δ z = w δ t and δ x = u t to show that the normal velocity follows δ p p the particle: version 3.0 updated 8/30/2005 -2- © 2005 A. Techet
2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #7 η η w u + on z = η . (7.8) = x t ( , , , (3) On an impervious body boundary B x y z t ) = 0 . Velocity of the fluid normal to the body must be equal to the body velocity in that direction: G φ JG G G v n ˆ ( ) ˆ( ) = U on B = 0 . (7.9) = φ n ˆ = = U x t n x t n , , n Alternately a particle P on B remains on B always; ie. B is a material surface. For example: if P is on B at some time t t such that = o G G , ( , B ( x t ) = 0 , then B x t ) = 0 for all t , (7.10) o o so that if we were to follow P then B = 0 always. Therefore: DB B ( = + φ ⋅∇ ) B = 0 on B = 0 . (7.11) Dt t Take for example a flat bottom at z = − H : φ /∂ z = 0 on z = − H (7.12) II. Linear Waves 2. Linearized Wave Problem. version 3.0 updated 8/30/2005 -3- © 2005 A. Techet

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2.016 Hydrodynamics Reading #7 To simplify the complex problem of ocean waves we will consider only small amplitude waves (such that the slope of the free surface is small). This means that the wave amplitude is much smaller than the wavelength of the waves.
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