free_surf_wave - Free-Surface Waves 2.016 Fall 2005 Prof....

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Free-Surface Waves 2.016 Fall 2005 Prof. A. Techet Dept. Mechanical Engineering
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Ocean Waves Photos removed for copyright reasons.
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Wave Breaking Photos removed for copyright reasons.
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Breaking wave in a Laboratory
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PIV under the interface Plunging Breaker We = 4568, Re = 6.94x10 5 f = 2.0Hz, ± = 0.366m, ² = 42 dynes/cm
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PIV under the interface Plunging Breaker We = 4568, Re = 6.94x10 5 f = 2.0Hz, ± = 0.366m, ² = 42 dynes/cm
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PIV under the interface Plunging Breaker We = 4568, Re = 6.94x10 5 f = 2.0Hz, ± = 0.366m, ² = 42 dynes/cm
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PIV under the interface Plunging Breaker We = 4568, Re = 6.94x10 5 f = 2.0Hz, ± = 0.366m, ² = 42 dynes/cm
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Effect of Surface Tension on wave profile Pure Distilled Water Higher surface Clean Tank tension Conditions Distilled Water Lower surface + 3% IPA tension Clean Tank Conditions
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Causes of Ocean Waves • Wind blowing across the ocean surface – Frequency f =10 -2 to 10 2 Hz – Per iodT=1 / f =0 .01to100 seconds • Pull of the sun and moon – Frequency is on the order 10 -4 to 10 -6 Hz – Period T = 12, 24 hours (tides) • Earthquakes – e.g. Tsunamis – Frequency less than 10 -2 Hz – Long wave period
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OCEAN WAVES SPECTRUM FIGURE 1. Wave energy spectra. Red text indicates wave generation mechanisms FIGURE 1. Wave energy spectra. Red text indicates wave generation mechanisms and blue text indicates damping/restoring forces. and blue text indicates damping/restoring forces.
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World Meteorological Org. Sea State Codes Sea State Code 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Significant Wave Height Range Mean 0 (meters) 0 (meters) 0-0.1 0.05 0.1-0.5 0.3 0.5-1.25 0.875 1.25-2.5 1.875 2.5-4.0 3.25 4.0-6.0 5.0 6.0-9.0 7.5 9.0-14.0 11.5 > 14.0 > 14.0 Description Calm (glassy) Calm (rippled) Smooth (mini-waves) Slight Moderate Rough Very Rough High Very High Huge
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General Wave Problem
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Unknowns • Velocity Field uv V (, , ,) =±² ( xyz t • Free Surface Elevation zxy xy = ± • Pressure Field = px y z t p dynamic + p hydrostatic
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Governing Equations & Conditions • Continuity (Conservation of Mass): 2 0for z ± ² ³ = < • Bernoulli’s Equation (given ): ± ² 1 gz 2 + pp a + = z < ³ ² t 2 ´ • No disturbance exists far away: ² , ²± ± 0 a n d a ² g z = ³ t
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Boundary Conditions In order to solve the boundary value problem for free surface waves we need to understand the
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free_surf_wave - Free-Surface Waves 2.016 Fall 2005 Prof....

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