chapter1 - - 2.12 Lecture Notes - H. Harry Asada Ford...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
- 2.12 Lecture Notes - H. Harry Asada Ford Professor of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2005
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Introduction to Robotics, H. Harry Asada 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Many definitions have been suggested for what we call a robot. The word may conjure up various levels of technological sophistication, ranging from a simple material handling device to a humanoid. The image of robots varies widely with researchers, engineers, and robot manufacturers. However, it is widely accepted that today’s robots used in industries originated in the invention of a programmed material handling device by George C. Devol. In 1954, Devol filed a U.S. patent for a new machine for part transfer, and he claimed the basic concept of teach- in/playback to control the device. This scheme is now extensively used in most of today's industrial robots. 1.1 Era of Industrial Robots Devol's industrial robots have their origins in two preceding technologies: numerical control for machine tools, and remote manipulation. Numerical control is a scheme to generate control actions based on stored data. Stored data may include coordinate data of points to which the machine is to be moved, clock signals to start and stop operations, and logical statements for branching control sequences. The whole sequence of operations and its variations are prescribed and stored in a form of memory, so that different tasks can be performed without requiring major hardware changes. Modern manufacturing systems must produce a variety of products in small batches, rather than a large number of the same products for an extended period of time, and frequent changes of product models and production schedules require flexibility in the manufacturing system. The transfer line approach, which is most effective for mass production, is not appropriate when such flexibility is needed (Figure 1-1). When a major product change is required, a special-purpose production line becomes useless and often ends up being abandoned, despite the large capital investment it originally involved. Flexible automation has been a central Figure 1-1 General trend of manufacturing cost vs. batch size Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Background image of page 2
Introduction to Robotics, H. Harry Asada 2 issue in manufacturing innovation for a few decades, and numerical control has played a central role in increasing system flexibility. Contemporary industrial robots are programmable machines that can perform different operations by simply modifying stored data, a feature that has evolved from the application of numerical control. Another origin of today's industrial robots can be found in remote manipulators. A remote manipulator is a device that performs a task at a distance. It can be used in environments that human workers cannot easily or safely access, e.g. for handling radio-active materials, or in some deep sea and space applications. The first master-slave manipulator system was developed by 1948. The concept involves an electrically powered mechanical arm installed at the operation
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.12 taught by Professor Harryasada during the Fall '05 term at MIT.

Page1 / 8

chapter1 - - 2.12 Lecture Notes - H. Harry Asada Ford...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online