MIT22_081JF10_lec03a

MIT22_081JF10_lec03a - Energy Transfer and Conversion...

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Unformatted text preview: Energy Transfer and Conversion Methods MIT 10.391J/22.811J/ESD.166J/11.371J/1.818J/3.564J/2.65J 9/16/2010 Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 1 – Mission of this Session • Introduce the importance and challenges of Energy Conversion iffuse energy sources Diffuse energy sources – Thermodynamic limits – Rate processes Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 2 Energy Conversion • Energy Conversion is the process of changing energy from one form to another Energy Source Useful Energy Energy Conversion Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 3 Historic Energy Conversion Sequences • Biomass → heat (esp. cooking) • Solar → heat, dry clothes, dry food – Solar is still main light source, no need for conversion – Solar is source of biomass, wind, hydro, etc. • Biomass → farm animals → horsepower, food Later, people also did these conversions: • Coal → heat • Hydro → milling flour, running machinery • Wind → pump water Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 4 o → mec ca → e ec r c y Modern Energy Conversion Sequences Heating of Buildings: • Gas, oil, biomass → heat • Solar → heat Electricity Generation: • Coal, gas, nuclear → heat → mechanical → electricity • ydr hani l l t i it Hydro → mechanical → electricity • Wind → mechanical → electricity • Solar → Electricity Transportation: • Oil → gasoline, diesel, jet fuel → heat → mechanical • Biomass → ethanol → heat → mechanical • Fuel cell cars: Gas → hydrogen → electricity → mechanical • Hybrid cars: Gasoline → mechanical → electricity → battery → electricity → mechanical Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 5 Energy Sources Type of Energy Examples Potential Energy Hydro Kinetic Energy Wind, Tidal Thermal Energy Geothermal, Ocean Thermal Radiant Energy Solar Chemical Energy Oil, Coal, Gas, Biomass Nuclear Energy Uranium, Thorium 6 Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion Solar Photovoltaics Wind, hydro, waves tidal Ocean thermal Biomass fuels Chemical Nuclear Heat Mechanical work Electricity Electricity Geothermal Fission & fusion Fossil fuels: gas, oil coal Fuel cells To end uses: residential, industrial, transportation Sources Energy Forms Sources Energy Sources and Conversion Processes Photosynthesis Direct thermal C l i m a t e Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Scales of energy flows • cell phone 2 W • laptop computer 10 W • human body (2000 Calorie diet) 100 W • 1 horsepower 750 W • hair dryer 1,500 W • automobile 130,000 W • 1 wind turbine 2,000,000 W (2 MW) • 757 jet plane 5,000,000 W (5 MW) • Large power plant 1,000,000,000 W (1 GW) • Global energy use 15,000,000,000,000 W (15 TW) • Global heat accumulation 816,000,000,000,000 W (816 TW) • Global renewable energy flow 9E16 W (90,000 TW) Sustainable Energy – Fall 2010 – Conversion 8 Energy versus Power Energy Energy E ( in BTU, joules(J) or cal) ( in BTU, joules(J) or cal)...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec03a - Energy Transfer and Conversion...

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