MIT22_081JF10_lec03b

MIT22_081JF10_lec03b - Sustainable Energy

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Sustainable Energy 1.818J/2.65J//3.564J/10.391J/11.371J/22.811J/ESD166J Part A: MIT IAP 2007 Two Week Course Lis Drake, January 16, 2007 Energy Sustainability issues What is “sustainability?” How does energy use impact sustainability? What are the problems with present energy use? What are global challenges for the future of energy use?
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What is Sustainability? The ability of humanity to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. [Bruntland, 1987]* Preservation of productive capacity for the foreseeable future. [Solow, 1992] Biophysical sustainability means maintaining or improving the integrity of the life support system of earth. [Fuwa, 1995] A dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations [Tester, et al. 2005] *Full references are given in: Tester et al., Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options , The MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 2005
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The Three Dimensions of Sustainabilty Ecology/ Environment Finance/ Economy Equity/ Social Development Trade-Offs & Synergies Derived from World Bank (1996)
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How does energy use impact sustainability? Some Benefits Energy is critical to human survival and development Fossil fuels are plentiful and convenient to use Energy is key to industrialization and transportation Energy facilitates economic growth and globalization Some Problems Rapid growth in fossil fuel use raises concerns about: Security of supply (over-dependence?) Environmental impacts Societal conflicts over inequitable distribution of resources Depletion of critical resources
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What are the problems with present energy use? Global Energy consumption is growing because: Population is growing Energy use per capita is growing – especially in developing countries Growing megacities need concentrated energy sources Transportation systems depend largely on petroleum fuels Major fossil energy sources have problems Security of supply/price stability (esp. petroleum) Depletion Climate impacts from greenhouse gas emissions Energy access is unequally distributed Global economy is significantly dependent on present fossil energy prices and availability – changes to include “externality” costs may slow economic growth (or at least cause major short- term disruptions in the economy)
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Intra generational Principles Reduce gross inequities between the poorest and wealthiest both nationally and globally Meet the basic needs of the poorest with food, shelter, health care, clean water, access to electricity, education, opportunity for work, etc. Avoid exploitation of poorer country/region resources and labor
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MIT22_081JF10_lec03b - Sustainable Energy

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