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MIT22_081JF10_lec04a - Recitation Discussion of...

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Recitation: Discussion of Sustainability Issues Dr. John C. Wright MIT - PSFC 21 SEP 2010
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Introduction Outline O UTLINE Another definition of sustainability - not running out 1 of things. e.g. land Energy footprint Environmental footprint Ecological footprint Carbon footprint 2 Drivers of Change 3 Opportunities and Barriers; timing issues Finance/ Economy Trade-Offs & Synergies Equity/ Social Development Ecology/ Environment Derived from the World Bank (1996) 2 Sustainability Recitation
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Footprints Motivation W E ARE NOT IN STEADY STATE Population and standards of living. 1990 data . Pop 5,278,639,789 (1990) HDI 1 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania 0 0 . 5 1 1 . 5 2 kWh/percapita 10 4 · 3 Sustainability Recitation
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Footprints Motivation W E ARE NOT IN STEADY STATE Population and standards of living are increasing. 2005 data . Pop 6,486,882,848 (2005) HDI 1 0 . 8 0 . 6 0 . 4 0 . 2 0 Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania 0 0 . 5 1 1 . 5 2 kWh/percapita 10 4 · Along the way, we need to make informed choices. 3 Sustainability Recitation
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Footprints Motivation H OW DO HUMANS IMPACT THE ENVIRONMENT ? Need to include direct consumption and also externalities in the supply chain - life cycle analysis . Resource depletion (water, energy, food, manufactured materials, fertile land, habitats, etc.) Waste product pollution Interference in environmental balances. Need a metric to apply across technologies and consumption. How do I compare an egg to a light bulb? Energy used - convert all energy requirements into a common unit like TOE (tonnes of oil equivalent). Need to convert all usage to primary energy (e.g., including the inefficiency of electricity production from primary energy). CO2 emitted - Here the energy footprint is weighted for the carbon intensity of the primary energy sources. (may not even be zero for nuclear or renewables) Land area used - a computation of land needed to collect water, to grow food, to produce various resources, to convert fossil energy to land to produce equivalent biomass energy, etc. for our individual use.
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