MIT22_081JF10_lec10

MIT22_081JF10_lec10 - . . ....

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Unformatted text preview: . . . 1.818J/2.65J/10.391J/11.371J/22.811J/ESD166J SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 650J/10 291J/22 081J 2.650J/10.291J/22.081J INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Prof. Michael W. Golay Nuclear Engineering Dept. NUCLEAR ENERGY BASICS AND STATUS 1 GOALS • To Understand the Situation and Prospects of the Nuclear Power Enterprise Within the Overall Energy Context Domestically Internationally 2 su l diversit . NUCLEAR POWER TECHNOLOGIES GOALS OF NUCLEAR POWER DISCUSSION: To Answer the Following Questions • Who used nuclear power today? Answer: Most industrialized countries. • Who is likely to use nuclear power in the future? Answer: East Asian and developing countries, countries wanting energy pply diversity. pp y y • What are the important nuclear power technologies Today? Answer: LWRs – pressurized and boiling water reactors. Future? Answer: Maybe LWRs near term, gas-cooled reactors medium term, breeder reactors long term. • How could nuclear power relieve global warming? Answer: Most likely with large-scale, high-temperature breeder reactors. • What are the future prospects for nuclear power? Answer: That depends upon how concerned people are about the problems of other energy technologies and what nuclear power can produce in addition to electricity. 3 TYPES OF STEAM-ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS 4 Turbine Fossil fuel Condenser Fire Boiler Fuel Steam Generator Pump Pump Water Turbine Nuclear BWR Condenser Steam Generator Pump Pump Reactor Reactor Water Fuel Turbine Steam Nuclear LMFBR Condenser Steam generator Liquid sodium Steam Generator Pump Pump Pump Intermediate heat exchanger Water Fuel Turbine Steam Nuclear PWR Condenser Steam generator Steam Generator Pump Pump Pump Water Fuel Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. PWR FUEL ASSEMBLY AND CUTAWAY OF OXIDE FUEL FOR COMMERCIAL LWR POWER PLANTS A.V. Nero, Jr., A Guidebook to Nuclear Reactors , 1979. 5 Image by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Committee . RANGE OF RADIATION IN TISSUE Particle Name Range (m) Particle Type and Charge Fission Product 10-6 Fragment of Nucleus α 10-4 – 10-5 Helium Nucleus ++ , 2 protons, 2 neutrons β 10-3 Electron - γ 0.1 – 10 Photon 0 n 0.1 – 10 Neutron 0 TRANSMUTATION Stable Isotope Neutron New Isotope A m + n → A m+1 6 FISSION 2 Fission Products + ν ( ≈ 2.5)n + 6 β n + 235 U → 236 U → 7 + 10 γ + neutrinos + kinetic energy ( ≈ 200 MeV) TWO REPRESENTATIVE FISSION- PRODUCT DECAY CHAINS* 8 Flowchart of decay chains for Br-90 and Xe-143 removed due to copyright restrictions. . ENERGY BALANCE FOR AN AVERAGE FISSION MeV Kinetic energy of fission fragments (2 nuclei: A Å95, 165 ± 5 A Å140) Prompt rays (5 rays) 6 ± 1 a eca ents (7 a 5 Beta decay of fragments (7 rays) 8 ± 1.5 Neutrinos related to above 12 ± 2.5 Gamma rays related to above (7 rays) 6 ± 1 Kinetic energy of neutrons (2 to 3 neutrons) 5 9 NEUTRONIC PROPERTIES OF NUCLEAR FUELS NEUTRON ENERGIES THERMAL MeV Parameter U 233 U 235 Pu 239 U 233 U 235 Pu 239 0.123 0.2509 0.38 0.1 0.15 0.1 2.226 1.943 2.085 2.45 2....
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec10 - . . ....

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