MIT22_081JF10_lec13a - Transport Issues and the Environment...

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Transport Issues and the ± Environment in Latin± America± Ralph Gakenheimer± Professor of Urban Planning, MIT± -- Oct. 21, 2010--±
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-- Presentation Sequence • Some Program Contrasts--Bogotá,± México, Santiago and São Paulo± Wider Urban Contrasts--8 World Cities 8 World Cities± Wider Urban Contrasts The Tricky Case of Congestion Pricing± The Challenges--Are We Meeting Them?
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Program Contrasts:± Bogotá, México, Santiago,± São Paulo± •Initiatives are similar in different cities. -BUT- •Variations in detail often mean widely different levels of achievement •There is much to be learned from comparative studies
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. Transit Administration and Regulation± Contrasting experiences with bus regulation: México Santiago São Paulo Bogotá 70s and before Private Operators, some regulation Public operation, some regulated private operators CMTC, Municipal Bus Company operated main lines, and subcontrat other services Private Operators subject to control from the Ministry of Transportation 80s Governments takes over all routes, Ruta-100 is created Total privatization and liberalization Increase in the proportion of lines operated by CMTC. Initial BRT corridors and trolleybuses were built In 1987, regulation of urban buses is transfered to municipalities trolleybuses were built. 90s Ruta-100 goes bankrupt, explosive growth of informal transit Strong move towards government’s regulation of private operators, route bidding process Privatization of Municipal Public Bus Company. SPTRans, an agency in charge of transit planning and management, is created Municpality allowed three fare levels according to level of service to encourage fleet renewal. Restrictions to the import of new buses were lifted. 2000s Government trying to control informal transit Route associations becoming formal firms, international operators moving in, integration with subway Working toward fare integration. New BRT lines being built. Transmilenio is launched. Fare integration with other private operators.
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, . Colectivos: Mexico± Tolerated since the 1950s--recognized in the 1960s Licensed to service metro stations from 1969 Needed because of failure of public transport Advocated by the profession and the international banks during the 70s--high service level wide coverage Each during the 70s--high service level, wide coverage. Each vehicle averages 700 passengers, 150 km./day Loose operating specifications and weak oversight GENUINE DILEMMA
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Travel Demand Management México City Santiago Bogotá São Paulo Name of the program Hoy no Circula Restricción Vehicular Pico y Placa Rodizio Hours of operation 5:00 – 22:00 7:00 – 19:00 7:00 – 9:00 17:00 – 19:00 7:00 – 10:00 17:00 – 20:00 Vehicles that Only vehicles built Only vehicles built All vehicles All vehicles A comparison of traffic ban programs: are subject before 1993 before 1992 % of these vehicles banned each day 20% 20% 40% 20% Comments •Relative high cost of new vehicles From 1989 •has incentivated the purchase of old cars • Fixed schedule • From late 80s • Low tariffs and a
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