MIT22_081JF10_lec20a

MIT22_081JF10_lec20a - Automotive Technologies and Fuel...

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Unformatted text preview: Automotive Technologies and Fuel Economy Policy Don MacKenzie MIT Engineering Systems Division Sloan Automotive Laboratory November 18, 2010 11/18/10 1 Outline • Technology overview • Policy overview 2 11/18/10 www.ecologicliving.ca Technologies for Higher Fuel Economy Credit for slides: Irene Berry SM Mechanical Engineering / Technology and Policy, 2010 11/18/10 3 We frame vehicle design in terms of range and performance goals Range Performance Over a Standard Drive Cycle 0-60 mph Acceleration Time Energy Specification Power Specification 11/18/10 4 Range depends on the energy required at the wheels and vehicle efficiency 2005 3.0-L Toyota Camry over UDDS drive cycle Fuel Tank: 100% 770% Engine Loss 76% Engine Standby: 8% Driveline Losses: 3% Driveline Aero: 3% Rolling: 4% Braking: 6% 16% 100% 13% 11/18/10 vehicle efficiency over UDDS cycle: 13% 5 ~ 165 Wh/km Performance depends on the peak power of the vehicle Limited region of high efficiency Peak power 90 80 70 60 50 Engine map of spark ignition (SI) internal 40 combustion engine (ICE) 30 20 10 0 Engine speed (rpm) Lowest efficiency is at low Typical operating conditions loads and high speeds on UDDS drive cycle Engine power ( k W) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Power with wide open throttle bsfc (g/kWh) (efficiency) 1000 (8.57%) 800 (10.7%) 700 (12.2%) 600 (14.3%) 500 (17.1%) 400 (21.4%) 350 (24.5%) 310 (27.7%) 280 (30.6%) 270 (31.8%) 260 (33%) 2 5 ( 3 4 . 3 % ) Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Ehsani, Mehrdad, et al. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, 11/18/10 Theory, and Design . CRC Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780849331541. So, we want to increase efficiency while meeting design goals 1. Reduce load (energy required at the wheels) 2. Increase powertrain efficiency 1. Increase efficiency of engine 2. Shift engine operating points 3. Use smaller engine (downsize) 11/18/10 7 [Ehsani et al 2004] Engine power ( k W) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Engine speed (rpm) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Power with wide open throttle bsfc (g/kWh) (efficiency) 1000 (8.57%) 800 (10.7%) 700 (12.2%) 600 (14.3%) 500 (17.1%) 400 (21.4%) 350 (24.5%) 310 (27.7%) 280 (30.6%) 270 (31.8%) 260 (33%) 2 5 ( 3 4 .3 % ) Engine power ( k W) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Engine speed (rpm) 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Power with wide open throttle bsfc (g/kWh) (efficiency) 1000 (8.57%) 800 (10.7%) 700 (12.2%) 600 (14.3%) 500 (17.1%) 400 (21.4%) 350 (24.5%) 310 (27.7%) 280 (30.6%) 270 (31.8%) 260 (33%) 2 5 ( 3 4 .3 % ) Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Ehsani, Mehrdad, et al. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design . CRC Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780849331541. Reducing the load at the wheels reduces fuel consumption • Reduce weight • Reduce aerodynamic drag Please see any description of Volkswagen's 1-Litre • Reduce accessory loads concept car and Siuru, Bill. "and Siuru, Bill....
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec20a - Automotive Technologies and Fuel...

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