MIT22_081JF10_lec21b

MIT22_081JF10_lec21b - Donald R. Sadoway Department of...

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Unformatted text preview: Donald R. Sadoway Department of Materials Science & Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 Electrochemical Approaches to Electrical Energy Storage 1 outline the ener gy storage landscape an electrometallurgical approach to large-scale storage portable storage: beyond lithium misconceptions about batteries not much has changed: not true! electrical energy storage (Wh/kg) (MJ/kg) lead acid 35 0.13 NiCd 45 0.16 NaS 80 0.28 NiMH 90 0.32 Li ion 150 0.54 gasoline 12000 43 misconceptions about batteries not much has changed: not true! no Moores Law (transistor count 2x every 2 years): the battery is an electrochemical device 2 interfacial reactions, each drawing upon reagents transported from contiguous volumes mass and charge transport required all microelectronics are silicon-based: device performance improvements come from better manufacturing capabilities all new batteries are based on entirely new chemistries radical innovation different approaches for different applications dont pay for attributes you dont need cell phone needs to be idiot-proof car needs to be crashworthy safety is a premium in both applications how about service temperature? human contact? stationary batteries: more freedom in choice of chemistry but very low price point market price points applica tion price point communications $1,000 / kWh automobile traction $100 - 200 / kWh laptop computer $2,000 - $3,000 / kWh severity of service conditions price stationary storage $50 / kWh storage is the key enabler for deployment of r enewables: unless their intermittency can be addressed they cannot contribute to baseload even if you had 100% conversion efFciency in photovoltaics they still wouldnt make it in much of the marketplace in grid-level storage we need to think about the problem differently when combustion is an option: stringing together thousands of Li-ion batteries wont do: here the whole is less than the sum of its parts batteries invented for portable applications are not scalable at an acceptable price point storage is the key enabler smart grid r equires rapid response capability colossal electric cache August 13, 2003 August 14, 2003 9:21 p.m. EDT 9:03 p.m. EDT 10 Images by NOAA/DMSP. storage is the key enabler smart grid r equires rapid response capability colossal electric cache transmission line congestion colossal electric cache load leveling colossal electric cache load following colossal electric cache accelerating the rate of discovery ther e is plenty of room at the top: we are not up against any natural laws of nature yet time to start thinking beyond lithium the Feld is woefully underfunded by government: energy research in total $1.4B (2006) < 1979 Fgure c.f. medical research rose by 4 to $29B the private sector research spending is even bleaker: US energy industry < 0.25% revenues c.f. pharmaceuticals 18% semiconductors 16% automotive 3% accelerating the rate of discovery...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec21b - Donald R. Sadoway Department of...

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