MIT22_081JF10_lec24b

MIT22_081JF10_lec24b -...

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1.818J/2.65J/3.564J/10.391J/11.371J/22.811J/ESD166J SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Prof. Michael W. Golay Nuclear Engineering Dept.
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HYDROPOWER 1
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HYDRO POWER – A CASE STUDY Some facts and figures Large-scale versus small scale High head versus low–head Energy conversion technology 2 Environmental and social impacts Economic issues
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1. Impoundment Involving Dams: e.g., Hoover Dam, Grand Coulee 2. Diversion or Run-of-River Systems: e.g., Niagara Falls FOUR TYPES OF HYDROPOWER SYSTEMS 3 3. Pumped Storage s Two way flow s Pumped up to a storage reservoir and returned to lower elevation for power generation 4. Tidal: e.g., la Rance
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BOSTON BACK BAY 4 Photo by Peter Stevens on Flickr.
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BC BEAVER DAM 5
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HYDRO-QUÉBEC PRODUCTION 97% renewable energy 57 hydroelectric generating stations (3 5,647 MW) 26 reservoirs (capacity of 175 TWh / year) nuclear power plant 1 nuclear power plant Annual investment: $2 billion 6
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CANIAPISCAU RESERVOIR 7 http://www.ilec.or.jp/database/nam/nam-35.html Caniapiscau Reservoir is a man-made lake, created as part of the La Grande Complex (James Bay) Hydro-electric Project. Aerial photo of Caniapiscau Reservoir removed due to copyright restrictions.
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THREE GORGES DAM Image by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using ASTER data made available by NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team . Via NASA Visible Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center .
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BONNEVILLE DAM 9
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DORDOGNE DAM 10
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ITAIPU DAM 11 Photo by Herr stahlhoefer on Wikimedia Commons.
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ITAIPU DAM 12
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ITAIPU DAM 13
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ASWAN DAM 14 Photos by Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Visible Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center.
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COMMON FEATURES OF CONVENTIONAL HYDROPOWER INSTALLATIONS 15 Typical Hydroelectric Dam Transmission lines - Conduct electricity, ultimately to homes and businesses Generators - Rotated by the turbines to generate electricity Turbines - Turned by the force of the water on their blades Penstock - Carries water to the turbines Dam - Stores water Cross section of conventional hydropower facility that uses an impoundment dam Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Tennessee Valley Authority.
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CONVENTIONAL HIGH HEAD RUN-OF-RIVER HYDROPOWER, e.g., NIAGARA FALLS 16 Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Damming section Supply section Section of river exploitation The characteristic components of a river-diversion hydroelectric plant. Tailrace section Penstock Power house Surge tank Original river bed Spillway Penstock Dam Intake structure Reservoir Top View Cross-Section
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HYDRO POWER – SOME FACTS AND FIGURES Current World Hydropower Production (2006) s ~ 3000 TWh -- about 20% of the world’s electricity and about 88% of electricity from renewable sources s ~ 777 GWe of capacity in 150 countries US capacity 100,451 MWe (2009) 17 s 78,951 MWe conventional hydro s 21,500 MWe pumped storage s About 8% of US electricity equivalent to 2.9 quads s Approximately 70% of US renewable energy Average Capacity/Availability Factor – 42% (~6% of total capacity)
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec24b -...

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