MIT22_081JF10_lec25a

MIT22_081JF10_lec25a - Sustainable Energy Options for...

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Unformatted text preview: Sustainable Energy Options for Africa Robert Stoner Associate Director MIT Energy Initiative Photo by NASA Visible Earth, Goddard Space, Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio. Rwinkwavu, Rwanda 13 34 589 698 5 21 809 561 Un-Electrified Population, Millions 2009 2030 By 2030 roughly 1.3 billion people will remain un-electrified. With Africa's un-electrified projected to grow to 700 million, gains made in other regions will be largely negated. Unique Africa Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Dalberg Associates, IEA data. Four “Typical” Countries South Africa Egypt Nigeria Kenya Population (million) 49.1 80.5 152 40 Pop. Growth Rate (%)-0.05% 2.00% 2.00% 2.60% Urban Pop. (%) 61% 43% 48% 22% Urban Pop. Growth Rate 1.40% 1.80% 3.80% 4.00% GDP (Exchange Rate $Billion) $287.2 $188.0 $173.0 $32.7 GDP per capita ($) $5,849 $2,335 $1,138 $818 lectricity er capita (kWh) Electricity per capita (kWh) ,894 4,894 ,471 1,471 26.38 126.38 22 122 Urban Growth per year (millions) 0.42 0.62 2.8 0.35 Rural Growth per year (millions)-0.44 0.99 0.27 0.69 % Change to Urban Annually 1.76%-0.45% 1.65%-0.84% (Source: CIA Factbook) The lack of rural electrification will be with us for a long time. Nigeria Electricity Generation by Fuel in Nigeria GWh 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Hydro - A real option 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Oil Gas Hydro Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Source: IEA. Energy in OPC’s Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008. Angola Cameroon Chad Congo Cote d'Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Mozambique Nigeria Sudan Total 16.6 18.2 10.5 3.7 18.9 0.5 1.3 21 144.7 37.7 14.2 10.1 2.9 0.4 11.6 0.9 18.6 76.6 26.9 176.9 273.1 14.6 78 97 78 73 61 70 89 53 71 65 88 14.2 10.2 2.9 0.3 14.7 0.4 16.9 93.8 735.2 204 15.7 78 97 80 59 78 33 80 65 93 75 95 Total Population, 2006 (million) Number of people without electricity access (million) (%) (%) Number of people relying on fuelwood and charcoal for cooking (million) ^ Gas Flaring in Nigeria 2 nd next to Russia 25% of gross production How much e is that? 532 bcf ≈ 156B kWh @50% ≈ 80B kWhe (Consumption ≈ 20B kWhe) . Photo of gas flares in Nigeria removed due to copyright restrictions. Graph from Country Analysis Brief: Nigeria ....
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MECHANICAL 2.650J taught by Professor Johnc.wright during the Fall '10 term at MIT.

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MIT22_081JF10_lec25a - Sustainable Energy Options for...

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