measurep - PDWK 573D OHFWXUH QRWHV= PHDVXUH WKHRU\ +N , k...

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PDWK 573D OHFWXUH QRWHV= PHDVXUH WKHRU\ +N , k #+WV,+ _ Ot|iBW| A iti @hi *iU| hi ?L|it uhL4 @| 2ef L? i@t hi A iLh) uL* *L ?} 6L**@?_<t LL! ±NA|jA|t 41 Zkdw duh phdvxuhv dqg zk| _phdvxudeoh% vhwv 5 4141 Wkh sureohp zlwk Ohehvjxh _phdvxuh% 6 51 Olplwv/ vxpv/ dqg rwkhu edvlfv 8 5141 Vhw Rshudwlrqv 8 5151 Olplwv/ Olpvxsv/ dqg Olplqiv1 9 5161 Vxpv ri srvlwlyh ixqfwlrqv ; 5171 Vxpv ri frpsoh{ ixqfwlrqv 43 5181 Lwhudwhg vxpv 47 5191 Frpsdfw Vhwv lq U q 49 51:1 Edvlf phwulf vsdfh qrwlrqv 4: 61 Wrsrorjlhv/ Dojheudv dqg ± ~ Dojheudv 4< 71 Phdvxuhv 58 7141 Uhjxodulw| Uhvxowv 5: 81 Frqvwuxfwlqj h{dpsohv ri phdvxuhv 65 8141 Frqvwuxfwlqj Phdvxuhv iurp Suhphdvxuhv 65 8151 Surri ri Wkhruhp 81: 67 8161 H{dpsohv ri ±qlwho| dgglwlyh phdvxuhv 69 8171 _Udgrq% phdvxuhv rq + U > E ,6 ; 91 Dsshqgl{= Frqvwuxfwlrq ri Phdvxuhv 74 9141 Rxwhu Phdvxuhv 74 9151 Fdudwk² hrgru|*v Frqvwuxfwlrq Wkhruhp 76 9161 Uhjxodulw| uhvxowv uhylvlwhg 79 9171 Frqvwuxfwlrq ri phdvxuhv rq d vlpsoh surgxfw vsdfh1 7: :1 Frqwlqxrxv dqg phdvxudeoh ixqfwlrqv 7< :141 Uhodwlyh Wrsrorjlhv dqg ± ~ Dojheudv 85 :151 Surgxfw Vsdfhv 86 :161 Phdvxudelolw| rq Frpsohwh Phdvxuh Vsdfhv 8: :171 Dsshqgl{= Vshfldo fdvhv ri wkh Surgxfw Wkhruhpv 8< ;1 Lqwhjudwlrq wkhru| 93 ;141 Lqwhjudo ri Vlpsoh ixqfwlrqv 93 #@|i G L i4Mih 2bc 2fff 6 *iG4i@t hiT |i _ A t hiti@hU @t T@h| @**) t TTLh|i_ M) 56 Bh@?| #5 bS 2SD #iT@h|4i?| Lu @| i4@| Utc f2 N? iht |) Lu @* uLh? @c 5@? # i}L w@ aL**@c b2fb f2 4
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5 EUXFH N1 GULYHU | ;151 Lqwhjudov ri srvlwlyh ixqfwlrqv 95 ;161 Frpsdulvrq wr wkh Ulhpdqq Lqwhjudo :5 <1 Prghv ri Frqyhujhqfh :7 431 Ghqvlw| Wkhruhpv :: 441 Ixelql*v Wkhruhp ;3 44141 Surgxfw Phdvxuh ;3 451 Ohehvjxh phdvxuh rq U g ;: 45141 Srodu Frruglqdwhv dqg Vxuidfh Phdvxuh <6 461 Vljqhg Phdvxuhv <9 46141 Kdkq Ghfrpsrvlwlrq Wkhruhp <: 46151 Mrugdq Ghfrpsrvlwlrq << 471 Udgrq0Qlnrg|p Wkhruhp 434 481 Frpsoh{ Phdvxuhv 439 48141 Devroxwh Frqwlqxlw| rq dq Dojheud 43< 491 Phdvxuh Gl±huhqwldwlrq Wkhruhpv rq U q 43< 49141 D Fryhulqj Ohppd dqg Dyhudjlqj Rshudwruv 443 49151 Pd{lpdo Ixqfwlrqv 444 49161 Ohehvtxh Vhw 446 4:1 Wkh Ixqgdphqwdo Wkhruhp ri Fdofxoxv 448 4;1 Dsshqgl{= Frpsdfwqhvv rq phwulf vsdfhv 456 4<1 Dsshqgl{= G|qnlq*v ± ~ ² Wkhruhp 458 531 Dsshqgl{= Pxowlsolfdwlyh V|vwhp Wkhruhp 459 41 b±B| Bij 6jBt²ijt BAa ³±+ T6jBt²iBO,j´ tj|t Gh±qlwlrq 414 +Suholplqdu|, 1 Vxssrvh wkdw [ lv d vhw dqg S + [ , ghqrwhv wkh froohfwlrq ri doo vxevhwv ri [= D phdvxuh ³ rq [ lv d ixqfwlrq ³ = S + [ , $ ^3 > 4 vxfk wkdw +4, ³ + > ,@3 +5, Li i D l j Q l @4 lv d ²qlwh + Q? 4 , ru frxqwdeoh + Q @ 4 , froohfwlrq ri vxevhwv ri [ zklfk duh sdlu0zlvh glvmrlqw +l1h1 D l _ D m @ > li l 9 @ m , wkhq ³ + ^ Q l @4 D l ,@ Q [ l @4 ³ + D l , = H{dpsoh 4151 Vxssrvh wkdw [ lv dq| vhw dqg { 5 [ lv d srlqw1 Iru D ± [> ohw ´ { + D ± 4l i { 5 D 3 rwkhuzlvh1 Wkhq ³ @ ´ { lv d phdvxuh rq [ fdoohg wkh dw {= H{dpsoh 4161 Vxssrvh wkdw ³ lv d phdvxuh rq [ dqg ²A 3 > wkhq ²³ lv dovr d phdvxuh rq [= Pruhryhu/ li i ³ = µ 5 M j duh doo phdvxuhv rq [> wkhq ³ @ S 5 M ³ > l1h1 ³ + D [ 5 M ³ + D , iru doo D ± [ lv d phdvxuh rq [= +Vhh Vhfwlrq 5 iru wkh phdqlqj ri wklv vxp1, Zh pxvw vkrz wkdw ³ lv frxqwdeo| dgglwlyh1 Vxssrvh wkdw i D l j 4 l @4 lv d froohfwlrq ri sdlu0zlvh glvmrlqw
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PDWK 573D OHFWXUH QRWHV= PHDVXUH WKHRU\ 6 vxevhwv ri [> wkhq ± + ^ 4 l @4 D l ,@ 4 [ l @4 ± + D l 4 [ l @4 [ 5 M ± + D l , @ [ 5 M 4 [ l @4 ± + D l [ 5 M ± + ^ 4 l @4 D l , @ ± + ^ 4 l @4 D l ,
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