pn let u domt be the largest open subset where

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Unformatted text preview: quartic surface in P3 with equation 4 4 4 4 22 22 22 T0 + T 1 + T 2 + T 3 + T 0 T1 + T 0 T2 + T 1 T2 + T 0 T1 T2 ( T0 + T1 + T 2 ) = 0 (see [35]). Note that over a field of positive characteristic the Hodge structure and the inequality ρ = rankSX ≤ 20 does not hold. However, one can show that for any K3 surface over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic (5.11) ρ ≤ 22, ρ = 21, K3 surfaces with ρ = 22 are called supersingular (in the sense of Shioda). Observe the striking analogy of inequalities (5.11) with the inequalities from Theorem 4.7. Besides scaling, one can consider the following operations over nondegenerate quadratic lattices which preserve the reflectivity property (see [97]). The first operation replaces a lattice M with p−1 (M ∩ p2 M ∗ ) + M for any p dividing the discriminant of M . This allows one to replace M with a lattice such that the exponent of the discriminant groups is square free. The second operation replaces M with N (p), where N = M ∗ ∩ p−1 M . This allows one to replace M with a lattice such that the largest power a of p dividing the discriminant of M satisfies a ≤ 1 rankM . 2 I conjecture that up to scaling and the above two operations any even hyperbolic reflective lattice is isomorphic to the lattice SX (−1) for some K3 surface defined over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p ≥ 0. It is known that the lattice SX (−1) for a supersingular K3-surface X over a field of characteristic p > 0 is always of rank 22 and its discriminant group is isomorphic to a p-elementary group (Z/pZ)2σ , σ ≤ 10 (see [96]). No two such lattices are equivalent in the sense of the operations on lattices described above. There is only one such reflective lattice, namely U ⊥ D20 (−1). There are only a few cases where one can compute explicitly the automorphism group of a K3 surface when it is infinite and the rank of SX is large. This requires one to construct explicitly a Coxeter polytope of Ref2 (SX (−1)) which is of infinite volume. As far as I know this has been accomplished only in the following cases: • X is the Kummer surface of the Jacobian variety of a general curve of genus 2 ([70]); 34 IGOR V. DOLGACHEV • X is the Kummer surface of the product of two nonisogeneous elliptic curves ([64]); • X is birationally isomorphic to the Hessian surface of a general cubic surface ([34]); 2 • SX (−1) = U ⊥ E8 ⊥ A2 ([115]); 2 • SX (−1) = U ⊥ E8 ⊥ A2 ([115]); 1 • SX is of rank 20 with discriminant 7 ([13]); • SX (−1) = U ⊥ D20 ([35]) (characteristic 2). What is common about these examples is that the lattice SX (−1) can be primitively embedded in the lattice II25,1 from Example 4.6 as an orthogonal sublattice to a finite root sublattice of II25,1 . We refer to [13] for the most general method for describing Aut(X ) in this case. 5.4. Enriques surfaces. These are the surfaces from Case 2 (ii). They satisfy 2c1 (X ) = 0, c1 (X ) = 0, H1 (X, Z) = To...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course MATH 285 taught by Professor Igordolgachev during the Fall '04 term at University of Michigan-Dearborn.

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