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PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW NOTES CHPT 6. SLEEP -short sleepers -long sleepers -weird sleepers -the “slump” concept -Jackel and Hyde thought in dream -sewing machine in dream -REM cycle every 90 minutes -dreams usually last 20 minutes -must get 15 minutes sleep every 4 hours -everybody dreams -everyone dreams in color -dreams are not necessarily for survival -3 hours of sleep is best to not get groggy -NOT all mammals dream=anteater -there are different levels of sleep (by operationalization of pressure) -dreaming is associated with rapid eye movement -REM pressure will build up if keep getting woken up during REM -NO REM = CRANKY Algorithm - problem solving by trying to every possible solution which is good if you have enough time. Heuristic- problem solving using a “rule of thumb” (an approach that is often right) Probabilistic inference - educated guess based on experience in the world -90% that are in 41 people 2 will have same birthday Availability heuristic - we decide how probably an event is by how easily we can think of examples of that event Representativeness heuristic - we decide how probably an even is by how similar it is to a known situation -First component and second component of probabilistic inference Availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic Anchoring heuristic- the tendency for a people to use previously determined starting points for making decisions 1
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Cognitive set - the tendency to believe something based on previous experience E.g. Time flies like an arrow. Time flies like a banana. Mistaken causality - you learn to do something without being taught Regression to the mean - things retreat to the mean Mental balance sheet - when having more categories causes you to make mistakes Consciousness - is our awareness of ourselves and our environment Alpha waves - waves relative to when you are relaxed with eyes closed but awake still. Delta waves -first in stage 3 then increasingly in stage 4 your brain emits large, slow delta waves Sleep Disorders Insomnia -not an occasional ability to sleep when anxious or excited, but persistent persistent problems in falling or staying asleep. Narcolepsy -sufferers experience periodic, overwhelming sleepiness. Sleep apnea -people with this condition intermittently stop breathing during sleep.
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