ch11dna - The capacity to blunder slightly is the real...

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“The capacity to blunder slightly is the real marvel of DNA. Without this special attribute, we would still be anaerobic bacteria and there would be no music.” —Lewis Thomas, Physician, author
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 2 DNA Analysis Students will learn: That DNA is a long-chain polymer found in nucleated cells, which contain genetic information. That DNA can be used to identify or clear potential suspects in crimes. How DNA is extracted and characterized. How to apply the concepts of RFLP, PCR, and STRs to characterize DNA. The role that statistics plays in determining the probability that two people would have the same sequence in a fragment of DNA.
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 3 DNA Analysis Students will be able to : Explain that DNA is a long molecule, tightly packed in the form of a chromosome with genetic material wrapped around it. Isolate and extract DNA from cells. Describe the function and purpose of a restriction enzyme. Calculate probabilities of identity using STR.
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 4 Historical Information James Watson and Francis Crick —1953 discovered the configuration of the DNA molecule Ray White —1980 describes first polymorphic RFLP marker Alec Jeffreys —1985 isolated DNA markers and called them DNA fingerprints Kary Mullis —1985 developed PCR testing 1988 —FBI starts DNA casework 1991 —first STR paper 1998 —FBI launches CODIS database
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 5 People of Historical Significance James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their determination of the structure of DNA. What is interesting about this fact is that Rosalind Franklin had as much to do with the discovery as the other three gentlemen with her work with X-ray crystallography. She died of cancer and could not be honored for her work. Find out more at Chemical Achievers: www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/chemach/ppb/cwwf.html
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 6 General DNA Information Double helix—two coiled DNA strands Composed of nucleotides—units containing a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base In humans, the order of these bases is 99.9% the same. Four bases Adenine Cytosine Guanine Thymine Bases always pair A to T and G to C
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Chapter 11 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 7 Where Is DNA Found? Genes are portions of DNA that code for specific proteins DNA is found in all nucleated body cells —white blood cells, semen, saliva, urine, hair root, teeth, bone, tissue Most abundant in buccal (cheek) cells Red blood cells have no nuclei; and therefore, no nuclear DNA DNA obtained from blood comes from white blood cells
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ch11dna - The capacity to blunder slightly is the real...

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