Chapter_3_Outline_Part_II_

Chapter_3_Outline_Part_II_ - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules...

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Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Part II Biol 1001 Spring 2012
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Four Categories of Biological Molecules Carbohydrates Ex: Sugars, starch, cellulose Lipids Ex: Oil, fats, cholesterol Proteins Ex: Hormones, enzymes, antibodies Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids Ex: DNA, RNA
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Summary of Carbohydrates
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Lipids
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Lipids very diverse group Composed almost entierly of hydrogen & carbon nonpolar molecules insoluable in water Functions store energy Form water-proof coverings Primary component of hormones
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3 Groups of Lipids Phospholipids component of cell membranes Steroids component of cell membranes hormones (regulate various processes in body)
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All related in that they: contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen contain 1 or more fatty acid subunit Fatty acid = long carbon & hydrogen chains with carboxylic acid group (-cooh) at one end do not have ring structures Functions Fats & oils energy storage Waxes waterproofing
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Fats & Oils insoluable in water (hydrophobic) No polar regions on molecules high energy source Formed by dehydration synthesis removal of water molecules Links 3 fatty acid subunits to 1 glycerol-> triglyceride glycerol = 3-carbon molecule
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glycerol fatty acids triglyceride + + Synthesis of Triglycerides (Fig 3-12) Dehydration Synthesis
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Breakdown of Lipids Broken down by hydrolysis during digestion utilizes lipase enzymes addition of water -> 1 glycerol+3 fatty acids Hydrolysis http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/org anisms_behaviour_health/diet_drugs/revise5.shtml
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Fats solid at room temperature Saturated fatty acids all carbons joined by single bonds hydrogens at all other bonding sites Contain as many hydrogens as possible Fatty acid chains are straight & pack close together ->form solid lumps http://elevatefitness.wordpress .com/category/nutrition/fat/
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Examples of Fats Animal fats butter, lard “Hydrogenated” plant fats Hydrogenation = chemically breaking double crisco, margarine, peanut butter
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Oils liquid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids some carbons joined by double bonds Monounsaturated = only 1 double bond Polyunsaturated = many double bonds hydrogens present at all other bonding sites fewer hydrogens than fats Double bonds form “kinks” in fatty acid chains Prevents molecules from packing together http://elevatefitness.wordpress.c om/category/nutrition/fat/
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Plant oils – found in seeds Monounsaturated
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2012 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_3_Outline_Part_II_ - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules...

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