GEOL_0800_Groundwater

GEOL_0800_Groundwater - Groundwater Geology 2 Hydrologic...

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Groundwater Geology
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2 Hydrologic Cycle Water that evaporates over the oceans rises and forms clouds. These clouds can be blown ashore, where they can rain.
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3 Hydrologic Cycle Water at surface may evaporate directly, or may be used in the  near surface by plants (=  evapotranspiration ), or Flow a short distance underground until it hits a stream.
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4 Hydrologic Cycle Or this water soaks in ( percolates ) far enough that it stays  underground for decades, centuries, and even many thousands  of years. This groundwater is what many depend on for survival.
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5 Irrigation with Groundwater For example, in many parts of the world, including the United  States, groundwater pumped out of the ground is being used  for irrigation:  Here are fields in Jordan that would not be  possible without irrigation.
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6 It starts with soil: Soil is weathered  bedrock/sediment exposed at  the Earth’s surface: Top layer is darker due to  organic matter. Lower layers become  increasingly less  weathered until you reach  unaltered bedrock or  sediment. To become groundwater,  water soaks past soil and  enters underlying bedrock or  sediment.
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7 Groundwater Infiltration Most groundwater resides  in  pores  (open spaces  between mineral grains) or  fractures. Porosity  is the percentage  of open volume in a rock:   Intrusive igneous and  metamorphic rocks tend to  have low porosity;  Sedimentary (non- shale/evaporite) and  volcanic rocks tend to be  high porosity.
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8 Groundwate r The Allegheny Plateau is  dominated by poorly sorted  sandstone (= sand + silt +  clay) and shale. Much local groundwater  resides in joints and  fractures.  Rural homes depend on  groundwater, but our  cities  and towns depend on  surface runoff (rivers) . Secondary   porosity :   Fractures/pore spaces  created by dissolution. joints and  fractures
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Groundwater Flow Whereas porosity  determines the maximum  amount of water that can be  stored, Permeability  dictates how  fast it flows underground.
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GEOL_0800_Groundwater - Groundwater Geology 2 Hydrologic...

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