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test 4 notes - Developmental Psych 11 19 09 Socialization...

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Unformatted text preview: Developmental Psych 11 19 09 Socialization and Families What is social development? o Personality o Self-concept and self-worth o Cultural norms and values o Relationships o Social and communication skills o Social understanding and reasoning Sources of social development o Family o Peers o Schools o Media o Culture o Child characteristics and behavior Socialization and Families o First socialization influence Most important in childs life Most intense feelings Universal o Primary in childhood Acceptance Guidance Role models Opportunities for development and growth o Enduring What is a family? Historical changes in the family o Family structure:1940-1990 Two parent farm family decrease Non-farm family/father breadwinner decrease Dual earner, non-farm, and one parent family increase Single-parent Families o 50% of children now spend a portion of childhood in a single-parent home 23% of European American families 37% of Latino families 49% of Native American families 55% of African American families Divorce o Half of marriages o Half involve children o 66% remarry Families and poverty o 20% of US children live in poverty o 20% of US children have immigrant parents Other historical changes o Family size Declined significantly in the last 50 years o Foreign and transracial adoptions o Gay and lesbian parents o Maternal employment Structure of American family has changed significantly and rapidly Families and Parenting: three universal goals o Survival Provide for childrens health and safety o Economic Provide children with the means to become productive adults o Cultural Ensure that children acquire basic values What makes a good parent? o Two dimensions of parenting Warmth Nurture Acceptance Involvement Control Standards, limits Structure Expectations Consequences warmth High Low High Authoritative, reciprocal Authoritarian, Low Permissive, indulgent Neglecting, uninvolved control Authoritative o High warmth, high control Warm and affectionate Expect age-appropriate behavior Clear limits and rules Firm enforcement Explain, reason, listen Authoritarian o Low warmth, high control Low affection, harsh Few joint activities Low praise, pride Restrictive, rigid Punishment and power assertion Permissive o High warmth, low control Affectionate, nurturing Few limits, rules Inconsistently enforced Low expectations for responsibility and maturity Child runs the show Neglecting/rejecting o Low warmth, low control Low affection, nurture Uninvolved, uncaring OR rejecting, hostile Abusive parents o About 13 per 1000 children are abused Neglect physical well-being (50%) Inadequate food, housing, clothing, basic needs Physical abuse (25%) Beating, shaking, burning, kicking Sexual abuse (13%) Girls twice as often as boys...
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test 4 notes - Developmental Psych 11 19 09 Socialization...

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