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Introduction to Sustainable Urban Renewal04

Introduction to Sustainable Urban Renewal04 - 53 4 Policy...

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[ 53 ] 4.1 Introduction In this chapter we address the European, national and regional environmen- tal policy challenges that are relevant to the two case studies, Oedevlietse- park in Hoogvliet and Morgenstond Midden in The Hague. We also analyse the environmental policy of the Municipalities of Rotterdam and The Hague and the housing associations Woonbron Maasoevers and Staedion. First, poli- cy developments at the European level are presented in Section 4.2. National policies for sustainable housing are examined in Section 4.3. Section 4.4 focuses on the regional policy of the province of Zuid-Holland. Section 4.5 adresses the extent to which sustainability is incorporated in the policies of the Municipalities of Rotterdam and The Hague. The theme of Section 4.6 is the same as 4.5, but in relation to the policies of the housing associations Woonbron Maasoevers and Staedion. 4.2 European policies High levels of urbanisation in Europe have introduced an urban dimension in many of the European Union’s environmental policies. In fact, the urban envi- ronment has apparently become so important that it is discussed as an inde- pendent subject in the 6 th Environmental Action Programme (EC, 2002). One of the key actions outlined in this Programme is the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment (EC, 2004). This document names four priority themes which exert a significant influence on the urban environment: sustainable urban transport, sustainable urban management, sustainable urban construc- tion and sustainable urban design. Sustainable urban construction covers a broad spectrum of sustainability themes, but the EU intends to focus on the existing housing stock. This focus will become stronger as the EU continues to expand, since the candidate countries will bring along a huge stock of post-war housing. In its energy policy the EU accords priority to energy saving and increasing renewable energy sources (EC, 2001) as it prepares to imple- ment the Kyoto Protocol across the community. Under the Kyoto Protocol the EU must reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 8% between 2008 and 2012 compared with the level in 1990. The allocated targets vary between the member states: the Netherlands has a reduction target of 6%. The impact of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol has been the subject of various research projects. According to a recent report by the Boston Consulting Group, the direct minimum costs of implementing the Kyoto targets in the power industry alone would run to some 20 billion a year, which is equal to 0.2% of the EU GDP, or about 50 per person (Jansen et al ., 2003). A major part of the costs, 8 billion a year, would be defrayed by investment in new plants to replace those that have to be prematurely shut down. There will be big 4 Policy analysis
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[ 54 ] winners and losers among the stakeholders. Even if the governments were to make electricity plants responsible for 25-50% of the CO 2 reductions, other sectors would still be expected to contribute, including households. But this
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Introduction to Sustainable Urban Renewal04 - 53 4 Policy...

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