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Unformatted text preview: [ 117 ] 7.1 Introduction In this part of the report we take the first step towards converting the ambi- tions for sustainable building – including the energy ambitions – into perfor- mance agreements in the urban renewal planning process. The scope and limitations of performance agreements for sustainable building will be dis- cussed on the basis of a literature search and the two case studies. Section 7.2 discusses the types of performance agreements which promote sustain- able building in urban renewal. Section 7.3 places them in the context of the planning process. Section 7.4 discusses how performance agreements can be tracked and monitored after implementation. Finally, Section 7.5 presents the conclusions. 7.2 Performance agreements in sustainable urban renewal Sustainable urban renewal involves various parties. The literature presents the process of sustainable urban renewal as a policy network (Klijn, 1996). A policy network can be said to exist when the players are mutually dependent and there is no higher authority. The players each have their own vision of reality and are engaged in an ongoing relationship. Several players, such as government authorities, housing associations and residents, bear responsibil- ity in the process of sustainable urban renewal. The positions of the munici- palities and housing associations have changed dramatically in recent years. The housing associations have become independent and the municipality no longer acts as overseer and subsidy-provider. In other words, the municipali- ties and the housing associations are now on an equal footing. However, they are still dependent on each other when it comes to giving shape and content to the process of sustainable urban renewal – a process in which performance agreements are becoming ever more important. Privatisation has not only changed the role of housing associations, it has created a new situation where the parties still need to determine their positions and responsibilities. Essentially, performance agreements stem from a need on the part of the municipalities and the housing associations to legitimize their new positions. A classic case is the performance agreement that the Municipality of The Hague entered into with the housing associations. This agreement states that the housing associations are responsible for the overall development of areas and hence implies that land development is no longer separate from building development. This kind of role allocation has never before appeared in urban renewal in the Netherlands. The agreement was preceded by lengthy negotia- tions about all sorts of issues, particularly the extra ground rent revenue that flowed into the municipal coffers from the re-allocation and sale of housing 7 Designing performance agreements for sustainable building [ 118 ] association homes (Laverman, 2003). Trends and changes in public housing influence the way in which performance agreements on sustainability are defined and hence determine their prospects of success. The case studiesdefined and hence determine their prospects of success....
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- Spring '12