Psychology Notes-All Chapters

Psychology Notes-All Chapters - Psychology Notes Chapter...

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Psychology Notes Chapter One: Psychology: The Science of Behaviour *The Nature of Psychology: -psychology is the study of behaviours and the factors that influence it -behaviours are both observable actions and inner processes (thoughts, feelings, images, and physiological reactions) -factors: biological, psychological, & environmental Psychology as a basic and applied science: -basic research = a quest for knowledge (knowledge = intrinsic value) -applied research = knowledge to solve practical problems (instrumental value) -goal of basic psych is to help describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence or cause certain types of behaviour -applied psych uses principles from basic psych to solve practical problems From Robbers Cave to the Jigsaw Classroom -robber’s cave – boys in summer camp – when pitted vs. each other lots of hostility, etc, problem solved by making them work together for a common goal -jigsaw program – multi-ethnic kids in group – had to work together because each had a different piece of info for the upcoming test -above examples are examples of cooperative learning Goals of Psychology 1) to describe how people and other animals behave 2) to understand (explain) the causes of these behaviours 3) to predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4) to control, or influence, behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes -1 usually leads to another, but sometimes all four aren’t needed *Perspectives on Behaviour: Guides to Understanding and Discovery -3 different levels of analysis: biological, psychological, and environmental The Importance of Perspectives -6 major perspectives: biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, & socio-cultural -the contrasting viewpoints meld into one The Biological Perspective -the mind-body problem: mind = spiritual entity separate from body vs. part of body’s activities -mind-body dualism = mind separate, monism = not separate -biological perspective focuses on physical side of human nature -emphasizes role of brain -biochemical processes of every thought, emotion, & action, and the manner that genetic factors influence the Discovery of Brain-Behaviour Relations -late 1700s – Luigi Galvani – frog leg + electrical current -1870 – Berlin – “mapped” areas of brain to the body -20 th century – Karl Lashley (US) created lesions & studied effects on learning and memory abilities of maze rats; inspired many scientists to map the brain -1929 – invention of electroencephalogram (EEG) – it let researchers measure electrical activity of large areas of the brain through electrodes attached to the scalp -role of neurotransmitters in normal and abnormal behaviour is one of the most important concepts in current research Evolution of Behaviour: from Darwin to Evolutionary Psychology 1
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course PYCSH 101 taught by Professor Not sure during the Spring '12 term at Waterloo.

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Psychology Notes-All Chapters - Psychology Notes Chapter...

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