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Unformatted text preview: Dairy Management Dairy Dr. Mickey A. Latour Department of Animal Sciences Purdue University, 1151 Lilly Hall, Purdue West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 West Dairy Structure Live Production Processing Processing (ground) Replacement Heifers Heifers Milking Bull Calves Dairy Products Cheese Milk Yogurt Ice cream veal Dairy Farming Dairy (Characteristics) • Characterized as a long-term investment • In the 1930’s only 35% of the milk was sold as whole milk; most of the remainder was separated, the cream and skim, fed back to the farm. Today consumers demand the skim & nonfat portion of milk as Cheese products, and thus created payment for dairy farmers (component pricing) Component pricing is based on protein, butterfat, and other solids Dairy Farming Dairy (Characteristics) (Characteristics) Pro’s • Low risk enterprise •Steady income •Good use of forage’s Con’s • Hours •Requires high quality labor •High investment (n=75 plus) • LABOR INTENSIVE Dairy System Dairy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exceed all Grade A sanitation standards Be designed for efficient use of labor Be designed for flexibility, ie., expansion Comfortable and easy to clean facility Safe, efficient movement of cattle, Safe, people and machinery people Typical Milking Parlor Typical Modern Milking Parlor Modern alveolus Supporting connective tissue Streak canal Udder Function Udder Milk is not mixed or exchanged between Milk the four glands. the The cow has four teats, and supplied by The four functional glands. four The ewe, doe, horse have 2 mammary The glands, but supplied by 2 streak canals, 2 teat cisterns, and 2 gland cisterns teat Outer wall of the utter Composition of Milk Composition At parturition, the % solids are nearly 2x At as high in colostrum when compared to “regular milk”. “regular Dairy calves are typically pulled from the Dairy cow when the colostrum is used up, within a few days and then supplied a supplement. supplement. This is done after birth b/c the antibodies This are so large they can’t pass through the blood wall (umbilical cord) blood Uppermidwest increases slower than us average Milking States Milking (National and State Dairy Farming) (National West coast increased faster than us average Planes and east coast decreased Top 5 Leading States Top (National and State Dairy Farming) (National 1. California 2. Wisconsin 3. New York 4. Pennsylvania 5. Minnesota Decreased about 2 fold Indiana Dairy Overview (National and State Dairy Farming) Indiana Dairy Farms range from 80 to 120 cows Dairy Herd Sizes Dairy (Herd sizes and Types) Size Number % of Total < 50 15,126 12.7 50-99 18,284 29.2 100-199 6,484 20.1 200-299 1,339 7.5 300-499 866 7.7 500-999 680 11.1 1000 plus 328 11.8 62% or 39,894 Averages for Breeds Averages (Herd sizes and Types) (Herd Ayshire B. Swiss Guernsey Holstein Jersey Milk Yield (lb) 14,474 15,736 13,594 19,324 13,551 Protein (%) 3.36 highest 3.55 3.53 3.20 Fat (%) 3.91 4.03 4.51 3.66 Herd # 238 439 461 38,001 3.77 Highest milk solids 4.70 1,661 Dairy (Production) Dairy Good management practices or potential goals Good • Average production is 20,000 lbs.per year (Holsteins), where Jersey would be 14,500 lbs. per year. • A good calving interval would be between 12.8 and 13 months. • Few udder and reproductive problems. •Low calf loss (0 – 5%) •Monitoring overhead cost •Labor efficient building and equipment •High quality forages available Dairy Production Dairy a) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Dairy Barns are typically composed of: Dairy free stalls feeding area milking area [parlor] Holding pen Office Utility room Waste management area Body Condition Scores (Cows) (0 = very thin and 5 = very fat) (0 Time of Score Desired Score Calving 3.5 Peak Lactation 2.0 Midlactation 2.5 Start of dry period 3.5 Major Factors Which Effect Milk Production Production • Ample supply of high quality feed • Climate (temperature above 85F will decrease feed consumption). Lactation Cycle Lactation Best Case (12-month calving interval) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Calving /breed (85 d) Pregnancy (280 d) Calving Feeding the Dairy Cow Feeding Diets are formulated as total mixed rations Diets (TMR) (TMR) Cows are generally managed by groups high production high low first lactation nonlacting nonlacting Feeding the Dairy Cow (Continue) Feeding Nutrients are calculated on a dry matter Nutrients basis. basis. In general, high producing cows receive a 50:50 In dietary ration (forage to concentrate) as compared to low producing cows (60:40). compared Cows can be expected to consume 4% of their Cows body weight in pounds of dry matter daily. body • A 1,450 pound high producing cow may consume as much as 58 lbs of dry matter daily (.04 times 1450) Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) Dairy • Official testing agency and sponsored by USDA • Provides an OBJECTIVE (mathematical) adjustment for certain environmental factors known to influence milk production. Factors Considered by DHI Factors A) age at calving B) season of calving C) Times milked per day D) Length of lactation Reports by DHI Reports A) production/income B) feed cost summary C) breeding and reproductive summaries D) rolling yearly average for milk, fat & protein E) Predicted producing ability (PPA) F) Predicted transmitting ability (PTA) Price per hundred weight Cheddar cheese 35.3% You will get more milk yield if you milk twice a day as opposed to once a day At about 21 days, the needs of the piglet exceed what the mom can produce. Today, piglets are weaned at about 12 days Large Breeds Large (Herd sizes and Types) (Herd Brown Swiss Holstein Breed with the Most Milk produced. Intermediate Breeds Intermediate (Herd sizes and Types) (Herd Guernsey Ayrshire Milking Shorthorn Smallest Breed Smallest (Herd sizes and Types) (Herd Jersey The breed with the most solids in the milk. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course ANSC 102 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue.

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