Lecture4 - Chem 1A Lecture 4: Periodic trends Development...

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Periodic trends Chem 1A Lecture 4:
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Development of periodic table
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Classification of the elements
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Lighter elements Approximately 73% of the mass of the visible universe is in the form of hydrogen. Helium makes up about 25% of the mass, and everything else represents only 2%. Virtually all H and He were formed during the first three minutes of the universe Energy from the sun results from a hydrogen nuclear fusion reaction H & He
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Beyond He Elements heavier than He are typically formed through stellar nucleosynthesis. Stellar nucleosynthesis leads to stars with heavy cores
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Heavier elements A supernova explosion is the only (natural) process that has enough energy to make elements heavier than iron. So, any gold or silver you are wearing, and even the calcium in your bones, were made in a supernova explosion eons before our sun and planets formed.
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Element abunance
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Exotic elements Elements with atomic numbers higher than 92 (Uranium) typically don’t exist in nature and have to be made by nuclear synthesis The first synthesized elements were named after the planets: uranium neptunium plutonium Ur 92 Np 93 Pu 94
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Exotic elements Md 101 Mendelevium Es 99 Einsteinium Bh 107 Bohrium Lives for only 10 ms! Uun 110 No name yet! Barbarium?
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Electron configuration of ions The electron configuration of an ion is generally one in which a low energy closed (sub)shell arrangement can be formed. Case 1: ions derived from s and p -group elements The electron configuration of case 1 ions is usually that of a noble gas. K: [Ar]4s 1 K + : [Ar] Sr: [Kr]5s 2 Al: [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 Cations: Sr 2+ : [Kr] Al 3+ : [Ne] F: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F - : [Ne] O: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Cl: [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 Anions: O 2- : [Ne] Cl - : [Ar]
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Electron configuration of ions Case 2: ions derived from d -transition group elements
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course CHEM 1A 40030 taught by Professor Borovick during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Lecture4 - Chem 1A Lecture 4: Periodic trends Development...

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