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Unformatted text preview: 1 Layla Fijany Chem 12A T/TH 5-10pm 8/30/2011 Experiment 1: Solubility Purpose: to recognize the solubility and miscibility of various substances, including organic acids and bases, as well as make educated predictions based on them. Introduction: The solubility of a solute is dependent on how much it dissolves in a given solvent. The result may be: soluble, insoluble or partially soluble. One way to predict solubility is by using the "like dissolves like" rule; this rule is commonly used to predict that a polar solvent will dissolve polar (or ionic) compounds and a nonpolar solvent will dissolve nonpolar compounds. But, predicting solubility, insolubility or partial solubility is not always easy to do because many features affect solubility i.e. polarity of bonds, shape of molecule, intermolecular forces, dipole-dipole, dispersion, covalent, and ionic solutions (ionize and dissociate). If the organic compound being dissolved in a solvent is a liquid (vs solid), then it is more accurate to say that the compound and the solvent are miscible (mix homogeneously in all proportions; no distinguishable layers). Likewise, if the liquid organic compound is insoluble in the solvent, then they are immiscible (do not mix, and form two, distinguishable, liquid phases). Hypothesis: polar solutes will be soluble in polar solvents and nonpolar solutes will be soluble in nonpolar solvents; polar liquid solutes/solvents will be miscible and nonpolar solutes/solvents will be immiscible Reaction: List of Reagents FW (g/mol) BP (C) MP (C) Density (g/cm 3 ) Other (hazards, uses, etc) Benzophenone (C 13 H 10 O): 182.22 305.4 49 1.11 -irritant to eyes, skin and ingestion; sol in acetone, methanol, diethyl ether; insol in cold water. Methyl Alcohol (CH 4 O) : 32.05 64.7-98 0.7918- reacts violently with acids, reducing agents, highly flammable; colorless, volatile, poisonous Hexane (C 6 H 14 ) : 86.2 69-95 .6548- used for glue and extracting oil & grease; evaporates in air (pollutant), highly flammable Malonic acid (C 12 H 4 O 4 ): 104.43 Decomposes 133 1.619-white crystals; combustible, irritant to skin, eyes & ingestion; intermediate in the synthesis of barbiturates. Biphenyl (C 12 H 10 ): 154.22 256 68.9 1.04- colorless crystal & pleasant smell; used in fungicides, preservatives; insol in water and sol in organic solvents (diethyl ether) 1-Octanol (C 8 H 18 O): 130.26 195-16 0.824- colorless lqd; insol/ immiscible in water; used in medicine to control involuntary tremors; 2 1-Butanol (C 4 H 10 O): 74.14 118-90 0.81- extremely irritating to eyes, inhalation may cause sore throat or dizziness; partially sol in water; used as artificial flavorant in butter, cream, fruit, rum, whiskey & ice cream Ethyl alcohol (C 2 H 6 O): 46.08 78-114 0.789- volatile , flammable , colorless lqd; psychoactive drug in alcoholic beverages , also used in thermometers as solvent /fuel Diethyl Ether (C 4 H 10 O): 74.14 34.6-116.3 0.7134- colorless, volatile, extremely flammable lqd, odor; RI(...
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- Fall '11