hard to believe that Plato created a fictitiously arrogant Socrates who was subsequently adopted by all the sources Xenophon read. And anyway, why would Plato invent this trait, which was destined, according to Xenophon, to bring Socrates into disgrace? And if he did not care about that, why, after inventing the arrogance, would he devote extensive efforts to explaining, toning down, and justifying the very arrogance he has invented?53 It is much more likely that Xenophon s conclusion is correct, that Socrates did speak this way (X. Ap. 1). But there is also evidence of humility in Plato s portrait of Socrates speech. How shall we explain this? Did Socrates himself try to moderate his own arrogance while indulging in it? Or is this humility, absent from Xenophon, to be attributed rather to Plato and his attempts to deal with criticism of Socratic arrogance? Socrates efforts to apologize for his arrogance are widespread. In several places (20d e, 34d e, 37a, 38a1) he addresses the arrogance issue explicitly,
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