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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry 2 Nuclear Chemistry In this chapter we will look at two types of nuclear reactions . Radioactive decay is the process in which a nucleus spontaneously disintegrates, giving off radiation. Nuclear bombardment reactions are those in which a nucleus is bombarded, or struck, by another nucleus or by a nuclear particle. 3 Radioactivity The phenomena of radioactivity was discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel in 1896. His work with uranium salts lead to the conclusion that the minerals gave off some sort of radiation . This radiation was later shown to be separable by electric (and magnetic) fields into three types; alpha ( ), beta ( ), and gamma ( ) rays. 4 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. For example, the nuclide symbol for uranium238 is U 238 92 5 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. The radioactive decay of by alphaparticle emission (loss of a nucleus) is written U 238 92 He 4 2 He Th U 4 2 234 90 238 92 + Reactant and product nuclei are represented in nuclear equations by their nuclide symbol. 6 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. Other particles are given the following symbols. n 1 Neutron Gamma photon H 1 1 p 1 1 Proton or  1 e 1 Electron or + 1 e 1 Positron or 7 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. The total charge is conserved during a nuclear reaction. This means that the sum of the subscripts for the products must equal the sum of the subscripts for the reactants . 8 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. The total number of nucleons is also conserved during a nuclear reaction. This means that the sum of the superscripts for the products must equal the sum of the superscripts for the reactants . 9 Nuclear Equations A nuclear equation is a symbolic representation of a nuclear reaction using nuclide symbols. Note that if all reactants and products but one are known in a nuclear equation, the identity of the missing nucleus (or particle) is easily obtained. This is illustrated in the next example. 10 A Problem To Consider Technetium99 is a longlived radioactive isotope of technetium. Each nucleus decays by emitting one beta particle. What is the product nucleus? 11 Nuclear Stability The existence of stable nuclei with more than one proton is due to the nuclear force ....
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2012 for the course CHEM 108 taught by Professor Dr.brennan during the Spring '09 term at Binghamton University.
 Spring '09
 DR.BRENNAN
 Nucleus, Nuclear Chemistry, Radioactive Decay, Reaction

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