Lecture_4_15_09

Lecture_4_15_09 - Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Main-Group...

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1 Chapter 22: Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals
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2 General Observations Several general observations can be made about the main-group elements . First, the metallic characteristics of these elements generally decrease across a period from left to right in the periodic table. Second, metallic characteristics of the main- group elements become more pronounced going down any column (group).
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3 General Observations Several general observations can be made about the main-group elements . Finally, a second-period element is usually rather different from the other elements in its group . Table 21.1 summarizes the properties of metallic and nonmetallic elements.
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4 Group IA: The Alkali Metals The Group IA metals (alkali metals) are soft (Figure 21.10), chemically reactive elements. The alkali metals usually react by losing an electron to become +1 cations. Because of their reactivity, they never occur as free metals in nature . They do occur extensively in silicate minerals.
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5 Group IA: The Alkali Metals The Group IA metals (alkali metals) are soft (Figure 22.3), chemically reactive elements. Lithium, sodium, and potassium are industrially important alkali metals. In recent years, the commercial uses of lithium (usually obtained from the chloride) include its use in the production of low- density alloys and as a battery anode .
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6 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Lithium Lithium burns in air to produce lithium oxide, Li 2 O, a white powder. Lithium, like other alkali metals reacts with water to produce lithium hydroxide and H 2 . LiNH 2 is used in the preparation of antihistamines. LiH is used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.
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7 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium It is used as a reducing agent in the preparation of other metals, such as titanium and zirconium, and in the preparation of dyes and pharmaceuticals. Sodium metal is prepared in large quantities.
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8 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium Sodium hydroxide is prepared by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride; as a strong base, it has many useful commercial applications, including aluminum production and petroleum refining.
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9 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium Sodium carbonate is obtained from the mineral trona , which contains sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate, and by the Solvay process from salt (NaCl) and limestone (CaCO 3 ). Sodium carbonate is used to make glass.
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10 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Potassium Potassium metal is produced in relatively small quantities, but potassium compounds are important. Large quantities of potassium chloride are used as a plant fertilizer . Table 21.3 summarizes the major uses of the alkali metal compounds.
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11 Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals Magnesium and calcium are the most important of the Group IIA (alkaline earth) metals.
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2012 for the course CHEM 108 taught by Professor Dr.brennan during the Spring '09 term at Binghamton.

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Lecture_4_15_09 - Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Main-Group...

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