Lecture_4_15_09 - Chapter 22 Chemistry of the Main-Group...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Chapter 22: Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 General Observations Several general observations can be made about the main-group elements . First, the metallic characteristics of these elements generally decrease across a period from left to right in the periodic table. Second, metallic characteristics of the main- group elements become more pronounced going down any column (group).
Image of page 2
3 General Observations Several general observations can be made about the main-group elements . Finally, a second-period element is usually rather different from the other elements in its group . Table 21.1 summarizes the properties of metallic and nonmetallic elements.
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4 Group IA: The Alkali Metals The Group IA metals (alkali metals) are soft (Figure 21.10), chemically reactive elements. The alkali metals usually react by losing an electron to become +1 cations. Because of their reactivity, they never occur as free metals in nature . They do occur extensively in silicate minerals.
Image of page 4
5 Group IA: The Alkali Metals The Group IA metals (alkali metals) are soft (Figure 22.3), chemically reactive elements. Lithium, sodium, and potassium are industrially important alkali metals. In recent years, the commercial uses of lithium (usually obtained from the chloride) include its use in the production of low- density alloys and as a battery anode .
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
6 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Lithium Lithium burns in air to produce lithium oxide, Li 2 O, a white powder. Lithium, like other alkali metals reacts with water to produce lithium hydroxide and H 2 . LiNH 2 is used in the preparation of antihistamines. LiH is used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.
Image of page 6
7 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium It is used as a reducing agent in the preparation of other metals, such as titanium and zirconium, and in the preparation of dyes and pharmaceuticals. Sodium metal is prepared in large quantities.
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
8 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium Sodium hydroxide is prepared by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride; as a strong base, it has many useful commercial applications, including aluminum production and petroleum refining.
Image of page 8
9 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Sodium Sodium carbonate is obtained from the mineral trona , which contains sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate, and by the Solvay process from salt (NaCl) and limestone (CaCO 3 ). Sodium carbonate is used to make glass.
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
10 Group IA: The Alkali Metals Potassium Potassium metal is produced in relatively small quantities, but potassium compounds are important. Large quantities of potassium chloride are used as a plant fertilizer . Table 21.3 summarizes the major uses of the alkali metal compounds.
Image of page 10
11 Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals Magnesium and calcium are the most important of the Group IIA (alkaline earth) metals.
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern