Lecture_4_24_09

Lecture_4_24_09 - Chapter 24: Organic Chemistry 1 Organic...

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1 Chapter 24: Organic Chemistry
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2 Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds containing carbon . In this chapter we will discuss the structural features of organic molecules, nomenclature, and a few important chemical reactions.
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3 The Bonding of Carbon Because carbon has four valence electrons, it can form four covalent bonds . A unique feature of carbon is its ability to bond with other carbons to form long chains or rings of various length. Carbon forms single, double, and triple bonds to achieve a filled octet. C C C C
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4 Hydrocarbons The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons , compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. The three main groups of hydrocarbons are: saturated hydrocarbons , hydrocarbons with only single bonds between the carbon atoms. unsaturated hydrocarbons , hydrocarbons that contain double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
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5 Hydrocarbons The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons , compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. The three main groups of hydrocarbons are: aromatic hydrocarbons , hydrocarbons that contain a benzene ring (a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds described by resonance formulas).
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6 Hydrocarbons The simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons , compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen. The saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons are often referred to as the aliphatic hydrocarbons .
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7 Alkanes The alkanes are acyclic, saturated hydrocarbons that form a homologous series of compounds, with the general formula C n H 2n+2 . The simplest hydrocarbon is methane, CH 4 . 4 CH molecular formula structural formula C H H H H
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8 Alkanes The structural formulas for the first four straight-chain (or normal) alkanes are shown below. methane C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H H H H C H H H H ethane propane butane
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9 Alkanes Chemists often use condensed structural formulas, where the bonds around each carbon atom are not explicitly written. methane C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H H H H C H H H H ethane propane butane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH 4
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10 Alkanes The alkanes constitute a homologous series of compounds in which one compound differs from a preceding one by a fixed group of atoms, in this case, a –CH 2 – group. Members of a homologous series have similar chemical properties , and their physical properties change throughout the series in a regular way .
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11 Alkanes The alkanes constitute a homologous series of compounds in which one compound differs from a preceding one by a fixed group of atoms, in this case, a –CH 2
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Lecture_4_24_09 - Chapter 24: Organic Chemistry 1 Organic...

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