March 20, 2009 - Total Entropy Entropy change for...

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March 20, 2009
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Total Entropy Entropy change for vaporization at 400K ΔS = 32,000/400 = 80J mol -1 k -1 +32000J of heat added from surroundings q surroundings = -24,000 And ΔS sur = -24000/400 = -80J K -1 mol -1 ΔS univ = ΔS sys + ΔS sur = 80 -80 = 0 For this equilibrium phase transition
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Vaporization is spontaneous (not reversible) if surroundings are 410K ΔS sys = + 80 still But ΔS sur = -32,000/410 = -78 ΔS uni = +80 -78 = +2J K -1 mol -1 Total entropy always increases for a spontaneous process
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Condensation Put vapor at 400K in a cold bath at 390K ΔS condensation = -32000/400 = -80 ΔS sur = +32,000/390 = 82 ΔS univ = -80 + 82 = +2 for spontaneous
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Entropy of universe always increases for spontaneous process “time’s arrow” Positive time is different from negative time because entropy increases for + time Universe heat death - heat moving from higher to lower temperature is spontaneous - can get work Eventually whole universe is same T ( about 3K) all heat no work possible This is heat death
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Schrodinger’s question
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