22_hazards2_10_post

22_hazards2_10_post - Global climate change From IPCC, 2007...

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ards 2: ards 2: 1 Global climate change From IPCC, 2007
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ards 2: ards 2: 2 Global change (a) Using all factors listed in previous slide Results for computer models (b) Using 1850 values of greenhouse gases: fail to account for observed warming since 1970 From IPCC, 2007
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ards 2: ards 2: 3 22: Natural Hazards 2 / Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Tsunamis Mexico City earthquake, Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 Mt. St. Helens eruption, 1980
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ards 2: ards 2: 4 Direct hazards: Pyroclastic flows Mount Unzen, Japan, June 1991. Photo: AP Pyroclastic flows : mass of volcanic ash, gases, and other volcanic fragments that flows downslope at great speed (100-300 km/hr) Fig. 9.22e Fig. 9.22e
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ards 2: ards 2: 5 Fig. 9.15 Fig. 9.15 Anak Krakatau, 2007 Direct hazards: Tsunamis 2/3 of volcano blown away Krakatau, Indonesia, 1883, ~36,000 fatalities. Tsunamis generated by massive explosion and water rushing into caldera Amount of material blown out of volcano (including parts of volcano itself) in cubic km
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ards 2: ards 2: 6 Direct hazards: lahars Lahars : volcanic mudflows produced when ash mixes with melting snow/ice and rainfall; travel at speeds of >50 km/hr. Photo: J. Marso
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ards 2: ards 2: 7 Direct hazards: volcanic gases Volcanic gases--may poison people and livestock Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986; 1742 fatalities CO 2 : denser than air; hugged ground; caused suffocation Fig. 9.23 Fig. 9.23
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ards 2: ards 2: 8 Volcanic ash may bury crops and collapse roofs (ash mixed with water is like cement). Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991, 200-800 fatalities Fig. 9.22d Fig. 9.22d Direct hazards: ash
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ards 2: ards 2: 9 Volcanic ash--hazard to aviation; clogs jet engines Direct hazards: ash
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ards 2: ards 2: 10 10 Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm fields; very few fatalities Fig. 9.22a Fig. 9.22a Direct hazards: lava flows
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ards 2: ards 2: 11 11 Photo: USGS Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm fields; extensive property damage Direct hazards: lava flows
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ards 2: ards 2: 12 12 Indirect volcanic hazards Disruption of transportation and destruction of crops cause illness and starvation Photo: Y. Arthus-Bertrand Laki, Iceland (1783-84); 50% of livestock and 21% of population died
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ards 2: ards 2: 13 13 Volcanic Hazards: Summary 1. Pyroclastic flows: ~30% of fatalities 2. Famine: ~25% 3. Tsunamis: ~20% 4. Lahars: ~15% 5. (a) Volcanic gasses, (b) ashfalls (e.g., roof collapse): ~10% 6. Lava flows: ~0% 1. 1. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5a. 5a. 5b. 5b. 6. 6.
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ards 2: ards 2: 14 14 Most dangerous volcanoes
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ards 2: ards 2: 15 15 Most dangerous volcanoes All are _________________________________ .
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ards 2: 16 16 Location of most dangerous volcanoes Nevado del Ruiz Nevado del Ruiz El Chichon El Chichon Galunggung Galunggung Merapi Merapi Kelud Kelud Agung Agung Awu Awu Tambora Tambora Taal Taal Mayon Mayon Cotopaxi Cotopaxi Soufriere Soufriere Santa Maria Santa Maria Lamington Lamington ___________ ___________ plate plate boundaries boundaries Volcanoes in red font or underlined in red are listed in table in previous slide. Fig. 6.19
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course 460 100 taught by Professor Schlsche during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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22_hazards2_10_post - Global climate change From IPCC, 2007...

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