Lecture17_ImmigrationI - Politics and Social Policy:...

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Unformatted text preview: Politics and Social Policy: Politics and Social Policy: Lessons from Europe Prof. Kelemen Immigration, multiculturalism and the integration of immigrants Outline Outline Can we learn anything from Europe in this Can field? field? Immigration patterns Models of immigrant incorporation Veil controversies across Europe Danish cartoon crisis The New Colossus, Emma Lazarus The Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" On the other hand… On Lou Dobbs Tom Tancredo Hazelton, PA 2010 Arizona law (sb 1070) 2010 gave the police in the state gave broad power under state law to check the legal status of people they suspect are illegal immigrants illegal Lessons from Europe? Lessons Similar policy challenges: today US is NOT only country with Similar substantial immigrant population substantial Foreign born population (2005 UN figures) – US: 12.8% US: 12.8% – Germany: 12.3% – France 10.2% France 10.2% – UK 9% UK 9% – Spain 10.8% Spain 10.8% – Sweden 12.3% Sweden 12.3% – Austria 14.9% – Netherlands 10% – Switzerland 22% Switzerland 22% Different politics? Different policies? Immigrant incorporation Immigrant “the United States appears to be doing a the better job than most Western European countries in affording opportunities for upward mobility and political incorporation, at least to the children of immigrants” Mollenkopf and Hochschild, p. 15-16 Mollenkopf European immigration experiences European Lots of emigration And historically (far back enough) substantial immigration. But.. “European states were mainly comprised through disputes over borders or consolidation of population groups who had lived in a particular region for centuries, not by immigrant populations that displaced a native-born population who were almost wiped out through disease and conquest.” – Mollenkopf and Hochschild Hochschild Post-WWII Immigration Flows Post-WWII ‘Guest Worker’ programs – Germany, Austria, Guest Belgium and Netherlands recruit guest workers from Southern Europe (Italy, Portugal), North Africa (Morocco), Turkey and Middle East Africa Decolonization reverse flow from colonies Decolonization back to ‘metropole’ (North and Subsaharan Africans to France, Indonesians and Surinamese to Netherlands, West Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Indians to UK) Bangladeshis Post-Holocaust openness: Asylum seekers and Post-Holocaust refugees refugees Recent Immigration Trends Recent After collapse of Soviet empire – easterners After move west. move Growing immigration to former emigration emigration countries (Spain, Portugal, Ireland) (though this has stalled now) has Increasing illegal immigration from North Africa Increasing and sub-Saharan Africa – including thousands coming by sea in dangerous conditions coming Dramatically increasing Muslim populations Europe’s Muslim Population Europe’s Europe’s Muslim Population Europe’s Europe’s Muslim Population Europe’s Estimated increases in Muslim populations populations Total EU immigration in millions Total http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Migration_and _migrant_population_statistics ‘Boat people’ Summer 2006 Canary Islands Malta Immigration and the backlash Immigration 40 million projected by 2050 Huge numbers of illegal immigrants Social problems (immigrant youth) Cultural tensions (Veil issue, cartoon issue) Political backlash: – Extreme right anti-immigrant parties gaining across Extreme Europe Europe – Moderate, center-right parties adopting harder line Immigration Immigration Different national responses to illegal Different immigration immigration France: – 300,000 - 400,000 illegal immigrants – Sarkozy says round them up and expel them Spain – Roughly 3-4 million illegal immigrants (nearly Roughly 9% of population) 9% – In 2006, Gov’t granted mass amnesty Should EU play a role setting common Should standards? standards? Immigrant Incorporation: Immigrant Who belongs? How to integrate Who immigrants? immigrants? Citizenship and Incorporation Citizenship Restrictions on citizenship In US citizenship by ‘birthright’ or by In ‘naturalization’ (jus soli) ‘naturalization’ No ‘birthright’ citizenship in Europe. Citizenship No by blood (jus sanguinis) by Only 10% of immigrants in Switzerland become Only citizens. (30% in Germany, 50% in France) citizens. But while immigration policies have been But tightened, policies on citizenship have been loosened Models of immigrant incorporation Models in Europe Britain – Multi-culturalism Britain France – Assimilation. France – laïcité Germany – ‘Wir sind kein Germany Wir einwanderungsland’ – ‘We are not a einwanderungsland’ country of immigration’ country British Multiculturalism British “Chicken Tikka Massala is now a true British Chicken national dish, not only because it is the most popular, but because it is a perfect illustration of the way Britain absorbs and adapts external influences. Chicken Tikka is an Indian dish. The Massala sauce was added to satisfy the desire of British people to have their meat served in gravy. gravy. Coming to terms with multiculturalism as a positive Coming force for our economy and society will have significant implications for our understanding of Britishness.” – Robin Cook, British Foreign Secretary 2001 Secretary British Multiculturalism British Official recognition of different ethnic, cultural, Official and religious groups. and Focus on ‘race relations’, ‘ethnic minorities’, Focus ‘cultural toleration’, ‘group rights’. ‘cultural Unity in Diversity Publicly funded religious schools, no headscarf Publicly ban ban British multiculturalism in crisis? British – 7/7/2005 London bombings – British Muslims: least integrated Muslim group British across Europe across Critiques of UK’s multiculturalism / open immigration policy open “Londonistan” Permissive stance vis a vis radicals? Rise of British National Party (BNP) Abu Hamza – radical Egyptian born imam Abu of Finsbury Park Mosque of Sept 2006 - UK Veil controversy Sept MP Jack Straw says the veil is a "visible statement MP of separation and of difference" and he asks women visiting his surgery to consider removing it women Immigration politics gets entangled with worries over terrorist threats with Madrid, March 11, 2004 170 dead, 500 injured London, July 7, 2005 52 dead, 700 injured Growing divisions? Growing 13% of British Muslims think that the four men who carried 13% out the London Tube and bus bombings of July 7, 2005, should be regarded as “martyrs” 7% agree that suicide attacks on civilians in the UK can be justified in some circumstances, rising to 16 per cent for a military target 16% of British Muslims say that while the attacks may have been wrong, the cause was right 2% would be proud if a family member decided to join al2% Qaeda. Sixteen per cent would be “indifferent”. BUT… 35% would feel proud if a close family member joined the 35% police police 56% of British Muslims believe that the Government is not 56% doing enough to fight extremism (only 49% of the whole population agree) agree) Source: Populus survey for The Times and ITV News , Source: The July 2006 July Source: Pew Research Center, June 2006 Extracts from a speech by the foreign secretary Robin Cook London,April 19, 2001 Robin Tonight I want to celebrate Britishness. As Foreign Secretary I see every day the importance of our Tonight relations with foreign countries to the strength of our economy, to the security of our nation, to the safety of our people against organised crime, even to the health of our environment. A globalised world demands more foreign contacts than even Britain has experienced in the past. I also know that we are likely to make our way more successfully in the world if we are secure in our British identity, and confident about its future. That security and confidence is important for the inner strength it gives us in our conduct of business with others. I want to argue the case why we can be confident about the strength and the future of British identity. why Sadly, it has become fashionable for some to argue that British identity is under siege, perhaps Sadly, even in a state of terminal decline. Today’s London is a perfect hub of the globe. It is home to over 30 ethnic communities of at least 10,000 residents each. In this city tonight, over 300 languages will be spoken by families over their evening meal at home. This pluralism is not a burden we must reluctantly accept. It is an immense asset that contributes to the cultural and economic vitality of our nation. the Legitimate immigration is the necessary and unavoidable result of economic success, which Legitimate generates a demand for labour faster than can be met by the birth-rate of a modern developed country. Every country needs firm but fair immigration laws. There is no more evil business than trafficking in human beings and nothing corrodes social cohesion worse than a furtive underground of illegal migrants beyond legal protection against exploitation. But we must also create an open and inclusive society that welcomes incomers for their contribution to our growth and prosperity. Our measures to attract specialists in information technology is a good example. example. Our cultural diversity is one of the reasons why Britain continues to be the preferred location for multinational companies setting up in Europe. The national airline of a major European country has recently relocated its booking operation to London precisely because of the linguistic variety of the staff whom it can recruit here. And it isn't just our economy that has been enriched by the arrival of new communities. Our lifestyles and cultural horizons have also been broadened in the process. This point is perhaps more readily understood by young Britons, who are more open to new influences and more likely to have been educated in a multimore ethnic environment. But it reaches into every aspect of our national life. Chicken Tikka Massala is now a true British national dish, not only because it is the Chicken most popular, but because it is a perfect illustration of the way Britain absorbs and adapts external influences. Chicken Tikka is an Indian dish. The Massala sauce was added to satisfy the desire of British people to have their meat served in gravy. gravy. Coming to terms with multiculturalism as a positive force for our economy and society Coming will have significant implications for our understanding of Britishness. will The modern notion of national identity cannot be based on race and ethnicity, but The must be based on shared ideals and aspirations. Some of the most successful countries in the modern world, such as the United States and Canada, are immigrant societies. Their experience shows how cultural diversity, allied to a shared concept of equal citizenship, can be a source of enormous strength. We should draw inspiration from their experience. should http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/apr/19/race.britishidentity French Assimilationist Model French Unitarian, Universalist, Egalitarian nation state. Assimilation is the basis of unity The public sphere: Neutral- No place for The religious, ethnic, cultural differences religious, Differences are relegated to private sphere Laicite: Strict separation of church and state No official recognition/public funding for ethnic No and religious groups. and The Republican ideal in crisis? – Uprisings in banlieues: 2005 French civil unrest. Uprisings Sarkozy proposes ‘selective immigration’ immigration’ Paris Riots November 2005 Paris 9193 cars burnt 2,921 arrests 21 nights of riots Source: French police Calais refugee camp, closed sept 2009 2009 German exclusion German Ethnic nation: that is defined in terms of “organic bonds between individuals sharing same origin” sharing exclusive citizenship: because until because recently ethnic affiliation was the primary condition of citizenship condition Immigrants are foreigners: Immigrants Auslanderpolitik Auslanderpolitik Germany Germany ‘‘Wir sind kein Einwanderungsland’- We are not a Wir country of immigration country Wolfgang Schäuble Wolfgang (CDU), 2006 (then Interior Minister): Interior „Wir waren nie ein Wir Einwanderungsland und wir sind’s bis heute nicht“ (“We were never a country of immigration and up to today we are still not one.) one.) Islamic veil controversy across Europe Europe What is the Islamic Veil? What Which one is the Islamic Veil? Which The Islamic Veil across Europe The France: A ban on Muslim headscarves and ban other "conspicuous" religious symbols at state schools was introduced in 2004. April 11 2011 law bans women from wearing full-face Islamic veils in public. Britain: no ban on Islamic dress in the UK. But Britain no schools are allowed to forge their own dress code after a 2007. code Germany: states could change their laws locally states if they wanted to. At least four German states have gone on to ban teachers from wearing headscarves headscarves New York Times, April 21, 2010, Sarkozy Wants Ban of Full Veils Sarkozy By STEVEN ERLANGER By STEVEN PARIS — President Nicolas Sarkozy of France told his cabinet on PARIS Nicolas France Wednesday that he would put forward a bill in May to ban the wearing of the full veil in public places in France, despite a warning from senior legal authorities that the bill may be unconstitutional. Mr. Sarkozy wants a bill that goes farther than initial proposals, including a ban on wearing the full veil — the niqab, which leaves only the eyes niqab which uncovered, and the burqa, which is almost unknown in France — from streets, markets and shops, according to his spokesman, Luc Chatel. The full veil “hurts the dignity of women and is unacceptable in hurts French society,” Mr. Chatel quoted Mr. Sarkozy as telling the cabinet. French ,” The idea of a ban is popular with the French and with his own political party, while Mr. Sarkozy’s own standing in the opinion polls has rarely been lower. An earlier proposal from a panel of the National Assembly suggested a bill banning the full veil in public places belonging to the state, like schools and public buildings, and in areas where facial recognition is vital for security reasons: airports, banks and even public transport. Mr. Sarkozy’s push for broader restrictions was seen as a challenge to the Council of State, France’s top administrative authority, which warned in March that “a administrative general and absolute ban on the full veil as such can have no incontestable judicial basis” and that it could be have and thrown out by the courts. The council said it would be clearer legally to simply issue an order that women would have to uncover their faces for identity checks as required. A law had to be based on the protection of public order, the council said, not on the grounds of personal dignity. Jean Leonetti, a deputy of the ruling party, said, “The ban must be total, or it’s incomprehensible.” The prime minister, François Fillon, said, “We’re ready to François said, take the legal risks because we think the game is worth the candle.” Fewer than 2,000 women in France wear a version of the full veil, and many of them are French women who have converted to Islam. The full veil is seen here as a sign of a more fundamentalist Islam, known as Salafism, which the government is trying to undercut. On the left, the veil is seen as repressive and a violation of women’s rights, even though many women who wear the veil insist that they are doing it as a free choice and see a ban as a restriction of their liberty. In 2004, France banned the wearing of head scarves in public schools, banned but at the same time banned all signs of religious affiliation, so the law did not legally at least single out Muslims, as a ban on the full veil would seem to do. Belgium is also preparing to vote on legislation to ban the full veil, with a fine of up to $35 and possible seven-day jail term for offenders who do not have New York Times, April 23, 2010, Veil Leads to Fine for French Driver Veil By REUTERS PARIS (Reuters) — A 31-year-old French woman has been PARIS fined for wearing a full veil while driving, a further sign of France’’s effort to clamp down on the niqab, the Islamic veil France s niqab the that leaves only the eyes uncovered and that President Nicolas Sarkozy says demeans women. Nicolas The unidentified woman told LCI television on Friday that the told police had stopped her last month while she was driving in the city of Nantes, near the Atlantic coast of France. She was wearing a black niqab, and the police handed her a $29 fine, saying that her clothing posed a safety risk to her driving. “My eyes were not covered,” she said. “I can see just like you, My and my field of vision was not obstructed.” She said she would appeal the decision. The incident has now reached France’s ministerial level. On Friday, the interior minister asked the immigration minister immigration to look into revoking the French nationality of the driver’s husband, who he said was a polygamist married to four polygamist women, with whom he had a total of 12 children. France’s Islamic veil controversy -“l’affaire du voile” -“l’affaire Background: – Growing Muslim population since WWII – now Growing roughly 3.5 million Muslims in France (6% of population) population) – Model of ‘immigrant incorporation’ based on Model assimilation and laïcité assimilation Commitment to laïcité has deep roots in France and Commitment reflects long struggle between secularists and the Catholic Church in France Catholic – Why women wear the veil: An expression of their religion? A symbol of belonging to Islamic community? An expression of traditional values / modesty of An women? women? Oppression of / social pressure on women? France’s Islamic veil controversy -“l’affaire du voile” -“l’affaire Beginning in early 1990s, some cases of girls Beginning being suspended from schools for wearing veil to class. to In 2004, France introduces The French law on In secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools symbols – Bans the wearing of any “conspicuous” religious Bans symbols in school symbols – So small medallions, small crosses, stars of David, So hands of Fatima, or small Korans are ok hands – Veils, kippas and large crosses are banned France’s Islamic veil controversy -“l’affaire du voile” -“l’affaire Latest developments – 2010 French President Sarkozy introduced a 2010 proposal for law banning the wearing of the full veil in all public places in France full – April 2011 Law goes into effect, prompting April defiance and stirring controversy defiance Sept 2006 - UK Veil controversy Sept •2006 – British Member of Parliament (former Foreign Minister) Jack Straw causes controversy by asking Muslim constituents who visit him to remove their veil in his office. He writes article explaining: "wearing the full veil was bound to make better, positive relations between the two communities more difficult". •This stirs big public debate in UK, but unlike in France, the UK government does not look to restrict wearing of veil in any way An example from Turkey: The clash between a secular state and a veiled woman state Merve Kavaci: A Turkish politician, Merve elected as a MP in 1999. elected Her appearance with her headscarf in Her the parliament caused an uproar. the She was prevented from making her She parliamentary oath. parliamentary She was stripped of her Turkish She citizenship, on the technical grounds that she had not disclosed her US citizenship according to the proper procedure. procedure. Questions Questions What do you think about the French government’s What approach to the veil? approach Does the ban on the veil reflect ‘Islamophobia’? Is it a violation of fundamental human rights to restrict Is women from wearing the veil? Or more generally to regulate how people dress? Or is it perfectly legitimate for a government to place limits on religious expression and/or dress? and/or Some feminists support restrictions on the veil, because Some they say it is demeaning to women and/or because they say women in some communities are forced to wear the veil by male relatives. What do you think of this argument? argument? What explains the difference between the French and What UK approaches to the ‘veil controversy’? UK Could you imagine a similar law ever being introduced in Could the US? Why or why not? the Feb. 2006 Danish Cartoon Crisis Feb. Free speech vs. respect for religion? Free •Sept. 2005 ­Danish Newspaper Jyllands­Posten sponsors cartoon contest and publishes 12 cartoons of the prophet Mohammed •Editors explain that they have done this to stir debate over trend toward ‘self­censorship’ in the media (writers/ cartoonists being wary of criticizing Islam) •Initially little reaction, but Danish Muslim groups protest against cartoons calling them blasphemous and/or Islamophobic Anders Fogh Rasmussen – Danish PM “Freedom of speech is the most valuable right of liberty ­ we must defend it to the very last” •Cartoons later reprinted across Europe, but not in US or UK. Several newspaper editors fired for reprinting cartoons. Free speech vs. respect for religion? religion? •Protests erupt in countries across the Islamic world. Trade restrictions imposed on Danish products (such as legos) by many governments and businesses. •Enormous political pressure on Danish government to denounce the cartoons / take action against the paper Anders Fogh Rasmussen – Danish PM “Freedom of speech is the most valuable right of liberty ­ we must defend it to the very last” •Danish Prime Minister Rasmussen takes strong ‘free speech’ stance, emphasizing he has no control over the press in Denmark and that they can print whatever they want. …another cartoon controversy South Park regularly insults all religions Following Danish cartoon crisis, South Park producers create Following episode based around the Danish controversy, but Comedy Central refused to broadcast cartoon image of Mohammed Central Last week, producers planned again to air a cartoon with an Last image of Muhammad. image Instead, image of Muhammad was replace by Santa Claus in a Instead, bear suit. The word "CENSORED" appeared on screen repeatedly during episode and mention of Muhammad was bleeped out. bleeped Radical Islamic website posts threats aimed at South Park Radical producers producers On ‘The Simpsons’ Bart's chalkboard line at start of episode On reads "South Park - We'd Stand Beside You If We Weren't So Scared." New York Times, April 26, 2010, Not Even in South Park? By ROSS DOUTHAT New By Two months before 9/11, Comedy Central aired an episode of “South Park” Two entitled “Super Best Friends,” in which the cartoon show’s foul-mouthed urchins sought assistance from an unusual team of superheroes. These particular superfriends were all religious figures: Jesus, Krishna, Buddha, Mormonism’s Joseph Smith, Taoism’s Lao-tse — and the Prophet Muhammad, depicted with a turban and a 5 o’clock shadow, and introduced as “the Muslim prophet with the powers of flame.” and That was a more permissive time. You can’t portray Muhammad on That American television anymore, as South Park’s creators, Trey Parker and Matt Stone, discovered in 2006, when they tried to parody the Danish cartoon controversy — in which unflattering caricatures of the prophet prompted worldwide riots — by scripting another animated appearance for Muhammad. The episode aired, but the cameo itself was blacked out, replaced by an announcement that Comedy Central had refused to show an image of the prophet. had For Parker and Stone, the obvious next step was to make fun of the fact For that you can’t broadcast an image of Muhammad. Two weeks ago, “South Park” brought back the “super best friends,” but this time Muhammad never showed his face. He “appeared” from inside a UMuhammad Haul trailer, and then from inside a mascot’s costume. Haul These gimmicks then prompted a writer for the New York-based Web site revolutionmuslim.com to predict that Parker and Stone would end up like revolutionmuslim.com Theo van Gogh, the Dutch filmmaker murdered in 2004 for his scathing critiques of Islam. The writer, an American convert to Islam named Abu Talhah Al-Amrikee, didn’t technically threaten to kill them himself. His post, and the accompanying photo of van Gogh’s corpse, was just “a warning ... of what will likely happen to them.” of This passive-aggressive death threat provoked a swift response from Comedy This Central. In last week’s follow-up episode, the prophet’s non-appearance appearances were censored, and every single reference to Muhammad was bleeped out. The historical record was quickly scrubbed as well: The original “Super Best Friends” episode is no longer available on the Internet. “Super In a way, the muzzling of “South Park” is no more disquieting than any other In example of Western institutions’ cowering before the threat of Islamist violence. It’s no worse than the German opera house that temporarily suspended performances of Mozart’s opera “Idomeneo” because it included a scene featuring Muhammad’s severed head. Or Random House’s decision to cancel the publication of a novel about the prophet’s third wife. Or Yale University Press’s refusal to publish the controversial Danish cartoons ... in a book about the Danish cartoon crisis. Or the fact that various Western journalists, intellectuals and politicians — the list includes Oriana Fallaci in Italy, Michel Houellebecq in France, Mark Steyn in Canada and Geert Wilders in the Netherlands — have been hauled before courts and “human rights” tribunals, in supposedly liberal societies, for daring to give offense to Islam. But there’s still a sense in which the “South Park” case is particularly illuminating. Not because it tells us anything new about the lines that writers and entertainers suddenly aren’t allowed to cross. But because it’s a reminder that Islam is just about the only place where we draw any lines at all. about Across 14 on-air years, there’s no icon “South Park” hasn’t trampled, no vein of shockcomedy (sexual, scatalogical, blasphemous) it hasn’t mined. In a less jaded era, its comedy creators would have been the rightful heirs of Oscar Wilde or Lenny Bruce — taking frequent risks to fillet the culture’s sacred cows. In ours, though, even Parker’s and Stone’s wildest outrages often just blur into the scenery. In a country where the latest hit movie, “Kick-Ass,” features an 11-year-old girl spitting obscenities and gutting bad guys while dressed in pedophile-bait outfits, there isn’t much room for real transgression. Our culture has few taboos that can’t be violated, and our establishment has largely given up on setting standards in the first place. Except where Islam is concerned. There, the standards are established under threat of violence, and accepted out of a mix of self-preservation and self-loathing. This is what decadence looks like: a frantic coarseness that “bravely” trashes its own values and traditions, and then knuckles under swiftly to totalitarianism and brute force. Happily, today’s would-be totalitarians are probably too marginal to take full advantage. This isn’t Weimar Germany, and Islam’s radical fringe is still a fringe, rather than an existential enemy. For that, we should be grateful. Because if a violent fringe is capable of inspiring so much cowardice and self-censorship, it suggests that there’s enough rot in our institutions that a stronger foe might be able to bring them crashing down. to Danish cartoon crisis / Southpark controversy controversy Should there be limits on free speech when it Should comes to speech that is ‘blasphemous’ or deeply offensive to any religion? Why or why not? offensive American newspapers chose not to reprint the American cartoons. Why do you think this was the case? cartoons. What does the Danish cartoon crisis reveal What about relations between European governments and Islamic communities in Europe? and ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course 360 290 taught by Professor Dankelemen during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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