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Unformatted text preview: Comparative Political Studies 43(4) 427 456 2010 SAGE Publications DOI: 10.1177/0010414009355265 http://cps.sagepub.com Trading Places: The Role of the United States and the European Union in International Environmental Politics R. Daniel Kelemen 1 and David Vogel 2 Abstract When environmental issues emerged on the international agenda in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the United States was of one of the strongest and most consistent supporters of international environmental treaties and agreements. The member states of the European Union subsequently ratified all the international treaties created in this period, but U.S. leadership was crucial and European states were laggards in many cases. Since the 1990s, the political dynamics of international environmental policy have shifted, with the European Union emerging as a global environmental leader and the United States repeatedly opposing multilateral environmental agreements. The authors argue that a regulatory politics model that synthesizes the effects of domestic politics and international regulatory competition provides the most powerful explanation of why the United States and European Union have traded places with respect to their support for international environmental agreements. Keywords European Union, United States, environmental policy, regulatory competition 1 Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 2 University of California, Berkeley Corresponding Author: R. Daniel Kelemen, Rutgers University, Department of Political Science, 89 George St., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 428 Comparative Political Studies 43(4) When environmental issues emerged on the international agenda in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the United States was of one of the strongest and most consistent supporters of international environmental treaties and agreements (Sands, 1994). The United States played a leadership role in the preparations for the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and backed the major international environmental treaties adopted during the 1970s, such as the 1972 London Convention on Dumping at Sea, the 1972 World Heritage Convention, the 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and the 1978 MARPOL Protocol on Pollution from Ships. The member states of the European Union subsequently ratified the international treaties created in this period, but U.S. leadership was crucial and European states were reluctant participants in many cases. 1 Again in the 1980s, the United States played a leading role in the negotiations that led to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, whereas EU member states (in particular the United Kingdom, France, and Italy) were reluctant supporters of this important international treaty....
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2012 for the course 360 290 taught by Professor Dankelemen during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '11