31811 - EpidemiologyofInfantMortality MelissaHawkins,PhD

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Epidemiology of Infant Mortality Melissa Hawkins, PhD Epidemiology International 11409 Cronhill Dr. Ste L Owings Mills, MD 21117 Phone: 410.581.9450 Fax: 410.581.8864
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Melissa Hawkins Bio Principal,  Epidemiology International Adjunct faculty, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg  School of Public Health, Department of  Population and Family Health Sciences 10 years research experience in perinatal and  reproductive epidemiology Click for selected readings
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Learning Objectives Describe and define the problem of infant  mortality  Assess the relationship between infant  mortality and life expectancy  Compare infant mortality rates in the U.S.  relative to rates in other countries   Understand the relationship between birth  weight, gestational age, and infant mortality 
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Performance Objectives Define and identify the standard terminology  used in reproductive health  Describe the two processes which can result in  low birth weight  Identify the leading causes of infant, neonatal,  and postneonatal mortality
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Introduction Infant mortality refers to the death of an infant  during the first year of life – Number of deaths among infants under one year  old per 1,000 live births in a given year Worldwide, approximately 10 million infants die  each year – More than 90% of these infant deaths occur in the  developing world
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Introduction Worldwide, approximately 10 million infants die each  year – In poorer countries, estimated 10-20% of all infants die  before their first birthday Only a small proportion occur in the U.S.  – 2007 - 6.4 per 1,000;  – 2004 - 6.8 per 1,000;  – 2002 - 7.0 per 1,000;  – 28,000 infant deaths and 4,059,000 live births in the U.S.
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Infant Mortality in the U.S. U.S. ranked 34 th  among industrialized countries  in 2003 – Rate about 45% higher than the rate for Japan,  Sweden, or Singapore Black infants continue to die at twice the rate of  white infants—this is referred to as “the gap”
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Potential Reasons for Poor Ranking  of U.S.  Measurement differences – Sources of data for rates – Debate over what to measure – First day mortality rates much greater for the U.S.
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Potential Reasons for Poor Ranking  of U.S. Variations in registration of vital events  – Not all countries subscribe to the WHO definition of  a live birth – In many European countries, fetal deaths are not  reported until after 28 weeks gestation, but earlier  live births are reported The higher incidence of low birth weight (LBW)  in the U.S.
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Causes of IM:  Developed and Developing  Countries  Developed   Post neonatal – SIDS – Congenital anomalies – Injuries – Infection Developing Post neonatal – Infection – Malnutrition – Injury
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31811 - EpidemiologyofInfantMortality MelissaHawkins,PhD

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