43781 - Preschool Health Services Indicators of quality of...

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Presented by: Dr. Soha Rashed Professor of Community Medicine Faculty of Medicine - Alexandria University 2011-2012 Preschool Health Services Indicators of quality of Under-five Health Services
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Preschool Health Services Preschool children are those aged one to less than six years. In most countries, there is a relative neglect of children of preschool age, where the schedule of work in MCH centers provides only one day per week for preschool children.
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Characteristics of preschool period 1. High morbidity of infectious and parasitic diseases 2. High prevalence of malnutrition 3. High incidence of injuries 4. High mortality 5. Growth and development
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1. High morbidity of infectious and parasitic diseases Infectious Diseases: Respiratory: e.g., ARI, Chicken Pox, Whooping Cough, German Measles, etc. GIT : e.g., Diarrheal Diseases, Enterica , Hepatitis A. Skin Diseases : e.g., Impetigo, Scabies and Fungal Diseases. Parasitic infections: e.g., Oxyuris and Ascaris.
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2. High prevalence of malnutrition Malnutrition is prevalent among preschool children due to: Hyperactivity and lack of interest in food. Faulty feeding habits. High prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases .
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The most common malnutrition diseases among preschool children are: Protein energy malnutrition (mild, moderate and severe) Micronutrient deficiencies: iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency. Rickets.
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Malnutrition in early life affects the physical growth, and is considered a risk factor for mortality from infectious diseases. Severe prolonged malnutrition in the first two years of life is associated with retarded brain growth and mental development, which persists to adult life.
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3. High incidence of injuries Preschool children are more prone to injuries as they are curious, energetic and eager to explore the environment. Most injuries occur where children spend the most active portion of their day (home, nursery or playgrounds). Falling downstairs causing head injuries or fractures. Household liquids Ingestion (kerosene, potash , insecticides). Ingestion of drugs. Burns or scalds. Electric shock. Almost all injuries are preventable . Efforts to reduce preschool injury rate should focus on the promotion of safety at homes, kinder gardens and play grounds as regards conditions and practices.
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4. High mortality Child Death Rate Under-five Mortality Rate 1000 locality and year same he birthsin t live of number Total locality and years given a in years) 5 0 ( children underfive of deaths of number X Total < - 1000 locality and year same in the years 4 - 1 aged children of number year Mid locality and years given a in years 4 - 1 aged children of deaths of number X Total
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5. Growth and development Growth By the end of the second year, the birth weight gets quadrupled. After the second year, the increase is steady at an annual rate of about 2.25 - 2.75 kg in weight and 7.5 cm in height until the adolescent spurt occurs. Development
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43781 - Preschool Health Services Indicators of quality of...

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