INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
REVIEW SHEET FOR FINAL EXAM
The following are the main topics and terms covered since the start of class.
If you know the
definitions of these terms, and are generally familiar with the ideas, you should be prepared for the
When an example was given in class of a specific concept, know the general facts about the
example, and what topic was being illustrated.
Use the outlines given at the start of class, and
materials shown as overhead slides as guides.
The book should be used for review of topics that
were not clear in class.
Material covered in first and second exam (about ½ of final)
1. Basic facts on world’s human population (number of people, annual increases) and of the USA.
Basic facts on extinction crisis:
number of species on earth (known and estimated), number
of annual extinctions.
2. Scientific method: hypothesis and experiments.
Why is it difficult to apply the scientific method
to environmental issues?
3. Politics & the environment: know the meaning of these phrases: public perception makes public
policy, fragmentation of authority, incremental decision making.
4. Economics and the environment: ideal free markets and government regulation.
negative externalities. Estimated value of ecosystem services worldwide. The “tragedy of the
Total economic value of healthy ecosystems worldwide.
5. Environmental train wrecks – for each example, know where they are found (which part of USA),
what biome they occupy and why they are a train wreck: Spotted Owl, Marbled Murrelet,
Salmon, Red-cockaded Woodpecker, California Gnatcatcher, Stephen’s kangaroo rat.
6. Human population growth. Population size of China, India. Carrying capacity.
U.N. estimate of
world’s carrying capacity (NOT the same as Fremlin’s estimate). Logistic growth.
7. Ecosystem functions – population, community, ecosystem, landscape, energy pyramids, trophic
levels, nutrient cycles.
Consumers and producers, 10% rule. Detritus & detritivores.