Lecture 1 - What’s this Course About? Foundations of...

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Unformatted text preview: What’s this Course About? Foundations of Mind! 200.336! 1/31/2012! Course Intro! (Bunting Navigation)! 2 What’s this Course About? • Broadly, human knowledge: What’s in the Mind? CORE KNOWLEDGE Domain general abiliBes: ? ? ANenBon Memory Building associaBons Basic sensory abiliBes:  ­ EvoluBonary origins: what knowledge are humans born with?  ­Change over Bme: what role does learning play in changing/ 3 adding to this iniBal knowledge? Seeing Hearing Touching Smelling/ TasBng KinemaBcs (body posiBon) 4 1 What’s in the Mind? What’s in the Mind? 5 What’s in the Mind? 6 What’s in the Mind? 7 8 2 What’s in the Mind? What’s in the Mind? 9 What’s in the Mind? 10 What’s in the Mind? 11 12 3 A Course ­long Proposal: CORE KNOWLEDGE Today’s Case Study: The Indigo BunBng • System of mental representaBons devoted to a certain body of knowledge • EvoluBonarily ancient (o]en) • Remains constant throughout development • InformaBon processing supported by innate, domain ­specific input analyzers • Learning supported by innate, domain ­specific learning mechanisms 13 Indigo BunBng’s Yearly MigraBonal PaNern 14 Indigo BunBng’s Yearly MigraBon PaNern 15 16 4 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Possible ways to know which way to fly: 1)  BunBng must know where it’s going & how to get there • Mental map, geographic landmarks? 2) QuesBon: How does a bunBng know which direcBon to fly? 3) Our strategy: Formulate alternaBve hypotheses 4) Bring observed phenomena and experimental data to decide between them 17 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? 18 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Possible ways to know which way to fly: Possible ways to know which way to fly: • Mental map, geographic landmarks? • Mental map, geographic landmarks? • Use sun as a compass (need to know what Bme it is) • Use sun as a compass (need to know what Bme it is) • MagneBc pole of earth? 19 20 5 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Possible ways to know which way to fly: • Mental map, geographic landmarks? • Use sun as a compass (need to know what Bme it is) Data point #1: Wild bunBngs fly at night • MagneBc pole of earth? • Rules out: Use landmarks, use sun • Leaves as possibiliBes: MagneBc pole, stars • CelesBal navigaBon? 21 22 How to decide between these two possibiliBes? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Steve Emlen, Cornell University Emlen’s Cage Experiments: Cage a wild bunBng before it migrates Night Sky 23 24 6 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? End of winter! End of summer! Night sky obscured! 25 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? End of winter! End of summer! Night sky obscured! Data point #2: Wild bunBngs with no visual access to night sky fly randomly 27 26 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Real Sky North Star • Next: Can orient planetarium sky arbitrarily with respect to actual orientaBon of the earth 28 7 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Emlen’s Findings: BunBngs aNempt to fly using perceived orientaBon of the night sky Real Sky: North Star Planetarium Sky: 30 North Star 29 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Emlen’s Findings: BunBngs aNempt to fly using perceived orientaBon of the night sky What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? QuesBon: How do bunBngs know how the North Star signifies true north? Conclusion: Because bunBngs require visual sky, & because can manipulate apparent vs. actual orientaBon, bunBngs pracBce celesBal navigaBon =N 31 32 8 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? QuesBon: How do bunBngs know how the North Star signifies true north? PossibiliBes: • Learn from others in flock But isolated nestling also flies south! • Innate But night sky changes over evoluBonary Bme! 33 Change in PosiBon of North Star over Time 34 34 34 Change in PosiBon of North Star over Time 120,000 years! 120,000 years! So how do bunBngs know the relaBon between the North Star and true north, if it changes over generaBons? 35 36 9 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? •  Emlen’s Theory: Individual bunBngs analyze rotaBon of night sky, determine center of rotaBon (azimuth) 37 38 38 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Emlen’s Results “Normal” Planetarium Sky (rot. center = North star) •  Emlen’s Theory: Individual bunBngs analyze rotaBon of night sky, determine center of rotaBon (azimuth) Adjusted Planetarium Sky (rot. center = Betelgeuse) •  New planetarium experiments: 1) Use arbitrary night skies 2) Change which star serves as the center of rotaBon 39 40 10 What is the Origin of the BunBng’s Knowledge? Returning to CORE KNOWLEDGE… • System of mental representaBons devoted to a certain body of knowledge (center of rotaBon, north, south) CriBcal period for learning north: • EvoluBonarily ancient (seen in distant avian species) • Must observe night sky as nestlings. Do not learn if not allowed to see the night sky unBl a]er have begun to fly (about 6 mos old) • Remain constant throughout development (used throughout lifespan) • InformaBon processing supported by innate, domain ­specific input analyzers (vision, sky) • Learning must take place during a parBcular period of development or will never occur 41 • Learning supported by innate, domain ­specific learning mechanisms (vision, sky) 42 QUESTIONS FOR THIS COURSE QUESTIONS FOR THIS COURSE 1) Depth percepBon 4) Space & navigaBon 2) Knowledge of objects 5) Language • What are the systems of human core knowledge? • What other kinds of knowledge are there? • How is human knowledge the same as animal knowledge and how different? 6) Other minds • How do humans go beyond core knowledge to create science, mathemaBcs, moral systems… 3) Number 7) Morality 43 44 11 Evidence from: Course Mechanics • Readings from primary sources on e ­reserve • Lecture aNendance mandatory ­ ­ readings & lecture o]en don’t overlap! • Slides posted at the end of each week • SecBon aNendance also mandatory… What is secBon all about? 45 What Do I Have to Do? (Deep) AlternaBng weeks: Data collecBon & discussion of readings 46 What Do I Have to Do? (PracBcal) Become an intelligent consumer of science 1) 2 midterms & 1 final exam 2) Turn in 5 short wriBng assignments interpreBng data collected in secBon (specific instrucBons will be given in secBon next week) Learn how to think about how experiments can begin to address age ­old quesBons about human nature 3) ANend secBon: Ask quesBons, contribute to discussion Be amazed 47 48 12 How Will I Be Graded? WriBng Assignment 1: 10% WriBng Assignment 2: 10% WriBng Assignment 3: 10% WriBng Assignment 4: 10% Midterm 1: 16.67% Midterm 2: 16.67% Final Exam: 16.67% Can I Get Extra Credit? • Up to 4 % points extra credit can be earned via parBcipaBng in psychology experiments 1 Experiment = 1% on final grade MulBple choice • Experiments generally last 20 ­60 minutes SecBon parBcipaBon/ aNendance: 10% • Sign up online (see syllabus for Experimetrix URL) 100% 49 Your Instructors 50 Your Homework (for tomorrow): 1)  Watch Pinker video on innateness (on YouTube): Dr. Lisa Feigenson hNp://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate.html Dr. JusBn Halberda Your TAs (all secBons meet in Ames 233) Aimee Stahl: SecBon 1 (Weds 10 ­10:50) Andrew Furman: SecBon 2 (Weds 2 ­2:50) Hrag Pailian: SecBon 3 (Weds 3 ­3:50) 51 52 13 Your Homework (for tomorrow): Your Homework (for tomorrow): 1)  Watch Pinker video on innateness (on YouTube): 1)  Watch Pinker video on innateness (on YouTube): 2) Read Amy Chua excerpt from Wall Street Journal: 2) Read Amy Chua excerpt from Wall Street Journal: hNp://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate.html hNp://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_chalks_it_up_to_the_blank_slate.html hNp://online.wsj.com/arBcle/SB10001424052748704111504576059713528698754.html hNp://online.wsj.com/arBcle/SB10001424052748704111504576059713528698754.html Think about parenBng: Child shaped by innate factors (genes)? Child shaped by parents’ choices? Are these views compaBble? Are you convinced by one/both posiBons? 53 Depth: The Problem 54 Depth: The Problem 56 14 Depth: The Problem Depth: The Problem 57 58 Space PercepBon is Hard • We perceive a stable, conBnuous, 3D spaBal layout Space PercepBon is Hard AudiBon: • PercepBon seems immediate, effortless & nearly error ­free • The mechanisms of percepBon are complex and puzzling Touch: All senses operate on contact (e.g., surface touches skin, molecules interact with tastebuds) But, PercepBon brings us knowledge of things at a distance… 59 How? 60 15 Vision and Depth: First Steps Vision and Depth: First Steps The eye sees by emiwng rays that bounce off of objects. The eye sees by emiwng rays that bounce off of objects. Plato 428 ­348 BC Plato 428 ­348 BC No, the eye sees by receiving rays that bounce off of objects. Aristotle 384 ­322 BC 61 Avicenna 980 ­1037 AD 62 Some Problems of Visual Space PercepBon How can we perceive 3 ­D from 2 ­D input? 4 4 39 24 23 44 89 44 4543 4 45 444 48 444 4944 4 89 4 2 4 894 448 63 16 ...
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