l06 - CH 203 O R G A N I C C H E M I S T R Y I Functional...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Functional groups © Bruno I. Rubio 1 CH 203 O R G A N I C C H E M I S T R Y I Functional groups Functional groups Atoms combine in patterns called functional groups. Each functional group ex- hibits characteristic chemical properties. The following list presents vari- ous ways in which some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry can be written. The symbol R (from the German word Radikal ) can be interpreted as standing for “the rest of the molecule”. Carboxylic acids R CO 2 H R COOH R C OH O Sulfonic acids R S OH O O R SO 2 OH R SO 3 H Esters R CO 2 R R COOR R C OR O Amides There are three kinds of amides: primary (1º), secondary (2º), and tertiary (3º) depending on the number of carbons bonded to the amide nitrogen. In a 1º amide, the amide nitrogen is bonded to one carbon; in a 2º amide, to two car- bons; in a 3º amide, to three carbons. Specific examples of each kind of am- ide are H 3 C C N O H H H 3 C C N O H CH 3 H 3 C C N O CH 3 CH 3
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Functional groups © Bruno I. Rubio 2 Nitriles R C N R CN Aldehydes R C H O R CHO Ketones R C R O Alcohols There are four kinds of alcohols: superprimary (0º) or methyl, primary (1º), secondary (2º), and tertiary (3º) depending on the number of carbons bonded to the carbon atom that bears the –OH group. In a 0º alcohol, the carbon atom that bears the OH group is bonded to zero carbons; in a 1º alcohol, the car- bon atom that bears the OH group is bonded to one carbon; in a 2º alcohol, to two carbons; in a 3º alcohol, to three carbons. Some specific examples of each kind of alcohol are H C H H OH H 3 C C H H
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/27/2012 for the course CH 203 taught by Professor Rubio during the Fall '07 term at BU.

Page1 / 8

l06 - CH 203 O R G A N I C C H E M I S T R Y I Functional...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online