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EE302-2-Circuit Basics (1)

# EE302-2-Circuit Basics (1) - DCCircuits BasicConcepts...

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DC Circuits Basics Concepts and Laws

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2 Basics Concepts and Laws Basic Concepts Charge and Current Voltage Power Passive Sign Convention Circuit Elements Ohm’s Law Kirchhoff’s Laws Series and parallel circuits
Charge and Current

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4 Charge The fundamental electric quantity All electrical phenomena are caused by charge Separation of charge or  Motion of charge Unit:  Coulomb (C) Charge of an electron:   q e  = -1.602 x 10 -19  C Charge of a proton: - q e  = +1.602 x 10 -19  C
5 Charles Coulomb The unit of charge is the Coulomb  (C) named after Colonel Charles  Coulomb (1736-1806) a French  engineer and physicist who  published the laws of  electrostatics in 1785-91.   Coulomb’s Law describes the  force between two charged  particles.

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6 Properties of Charge It is safe to treat charge as a continuous property in  dealing with circuits. Charge is conserved. Charge may be transferred from one part of a circuit to  another, but the total amount of charge does not change. This is a result of conservation of matter. Charge is due to electrons and protons. Electrons and protons are neither created nor destroyed in an  electric circuit.
7 Current Current (i) is the rate at which charge is passing through an  area:  i =  q/ t where  i = the current in Amperes q = the charge in Coulombs t = the time in seconds   = the change in a quantity 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb/second 1 Ampere =  6,240,000,000,000,000,000 electrons per sec (6.24 x 10 18 )

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8 Andr é  Marie Amp è re  The unit of current is the Ampere  (A) named after Andr é  Marie  Amp è re  (1775-1836) a French  mathematician, physicist and  chemist who published the  electrodynamic force law in 1826.
9 Direction of Current Flow Current is a signed quantity  Physicists: Current flow in a conductor is due to electrons flowing  from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of a  voltage source. Electrical Engineers: Use the convention that current is due to positive charges  flowing from the positive terminal to the negative  terminal of a voltage source.

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10 Current Flow – The Reality Current flow in a metallic  conductor is due to electrons. Current flow in some other  materials (plasmas, electrolytes)  can be due to protons. It makes no difference as long as  we are consistent.
11 Current Flow in Metallic Conductors Outer electrons are loosely bound to nucleus in metals Number electrons = number protons e - e - e -

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12 Current Flow in Metallic Conductors Electron moves to right.
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EE302-2-Circuit Basics (1) - DCCircuits BasicConcepts...

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