KEY - Ch 11 Reading Guide (1)

KEY - Ch 11 Reading Guide (1) - 1 What is a signal...

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1) What is a signal transduction pathway? ● the process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response (a series of steps)
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2) How do yeast cells communicate while mating? ● chemical signaling ● 2 mating types: a and α (alpha) -type “a” cells secrete “a” factor -type “α” cells secrete “α” factor ● the factors bind to receptors on the other ; the 2 mating factors cause the cells to grow toward each other and fuse
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3) How do intercellular connections function in cell to cell communication? ● both plant and animal cells have cell junctions (gap junctions in animal cells; plasmodesmata in plant cells) that, where present, directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells ● signaling substances dissolved in the cytoplasm can freely pass between adjacent cells
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4) Explain the two types of local signaling: A) Paracrine signaling ● a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by releasing molecules of a local regulator (i.e. growth factor) into the extracellular fluid
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4) Explain the two types of local signaling: B) Synaptic signaling ● a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, the narrow space between the transmitting cell & the target cell
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5) How are long distance signals sent? ● Long distance signals are sent by chemicals called HORMONES . ● specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids,often the blood. ● hormones may reach virtually all body cells, but will only attach to target cells with the specific receptor molecule
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6) Explain Sutherland’s investigations with epinephrine and the inferences that were derived from this work. ● discovered that epinephrine stimulates glycogen breakdown by activating a cytosolic enzyme, glycogen phosphorylase. ● this only worked when epinephrine was applied to INTACT cells ● INFERENCE: epinephrine does not act on the enzyme directly; and the cell membrane is somehow involved in transmitting the signal
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7) Define the three stages of cell communication: A) Reception: ● the target cell’s detection of a signal coming from outside the cell ● a chemical signal is detected when it binds to a cellular protein (usually a membrane protein)
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7) Define the three stages of cell communication: B) Transduction: ● the binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way… ● the signal is converted to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
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7) Define the three stages of cell communication: C) Response ● the transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response
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